Clinical Chemistry 2 - Electrolytes

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Roughly _____ of our body weight is fluid

2/3

Body fluids are contained w/in compartments which are separated by a semi-permeable membrane making some ______ and some ______

intracellular fluids, extracellular fluids

2/3 of the bodies H2O content is _____, and the remaining 1/3 is _____.

Intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid

Any substance which, in solution, dissociates into ions and is thus capable of conducting an electric current

Electrolytes

Electrolytes exist as positively charged particles known as _________, OR negatively charged particles known as __________.

Cations, Anions

Cations(+) move towards the _____, which is negatively charged. Anions(-) move towards the _____, which is positively charged. Remember (+) moves towards a (-)

cathode (-), anode(+)

The common cations are:

-Sodium - Na
-Potassium - K
-Calcium - Ca
-Magnesium - Mg

The common anions are:

-Chloride - Cl
-Bicarbonate
-Phosphate
-Sulfate
-Organic Salts

The major electrolytes tested for in the lab are:

-Sodium
-Potassium
-Calcium
-Magnesium
-Chloride
-Bicarbonate (Carbon Dioxide)
-Phosphorus

Some of the major functions of electrolytes include:

-Maintain osmostic pressure
-Regulate hydration of various body fluid compartments
-Maintain pH
-Regulate proper function of heart and muscles
-Oxidation-reduction reactions
-Essential cofactors for enzymes(Co-Factors activate enzymes)

The total concentration of cations w/in the body is on average _______, and _________ for anions. In other words, ____ equals _____ making the body fluids always ___________

155 mEq/l, 155mEq/l, positive, negative, electrically neutral

A serum electrolyte profile is one of the most important tests ordered by physicians, what does it includes:

-Sodium
-Potassium
-Chloride
-Bicarbonate (Carbon dioxide)

The major cation of extracellular fluid

Sodium

_________ plays an important role in the maintenance and distribution of water and osmotic pressure in various fluid compartments as well as assist in regulating acid/base balance

Sodium

The major route of sodium excretion is:

by the kidneys in urine output

Excess sodium is termed __________, while a deficiency in sodium is termed __________

Hypernatremia, Hyponatremia

Inflammation or Edema is typically associated with an increased volume of which electrolyte?

Sodium

An increase in osmolality leads too ______

Too much solute, not enough solvent, so the brain causes thirst, which will lower osmolality, and you will produce more vasopressin ADH, which will make you pee less.

Hypernatremia can be a result of which conditions?

-Cardiac failure
-Liver disease
-Renal disease causing GFR reduction causing decreased sodium filtration
-Hyperalosternoism
-Pregnancy
-CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE causing less blood to pump causing less sodium to be filtered

Hyponatremia can be caused by:

-GI losses
-Excessive sweating
-Renal disease
-Adrenal insufficiency
-Diuretic therapy
-Osmotic diuresis
-Burns

Major intracellular cation

Potassium

After partial removal from the plasma by glomerular filtration, how much of the potassium is reabsorbed by the tubules?

Nearly ALL potassium

Almost all of the bodys total potassium is found in the _______ water space.

Intracellular

Total potassium of the body is influenced by which three factors?

Age, sex, and muslce mass (where most body potassium is contained)

Potassium output occurs in small amounts from the _______ and ______, but most output is in the ________.

GI tract, skin, urine

Excess potassium is called ________

Hyperkalemia

Decreased potassium is called _______

Hypokalemia

Of all the electrolytes which one is most affected by hemolysis?

Potassium

Functions of potassium include:

-Cardiac muscle activity
-Acid/base balance
-Osmotic pressure between intra and extracellular

A direct method used to determine sodium and potassium and chloride

ISE test Ion Selective Electrode

ISE methods can be used to test which specimens?

Serum, Urine, CSF

How long should does the tech have to separate the cells from the specimen for sodium and potassium to avoid shifts?

3 hours

Can I use a hemolyzed sample for a sodium and potassium test?

No, hemolyzed specimens will release potassium from the cells causing a false increase in potassium

How long is a sodium and potassium and chloride sample good for?

One week @ refrigerated or room temps
One year frozen

Along w/ bicarbonate, this is the most commonly analyzed anion

Chloride

The anion of the greatest extracellular concentration

Chloride

A decrease in osmolality leads too _______

not enough solute, too much solvent, vaspressin ADH will decrease in production, which will make you pee more

90% of the osmolality result is _____

Sodium

_____ and _____ regulate blood volume.

Renin/Angiotension, Aldosterone

Renin/Angiotension are released by the _______

kidneys

Aldosterone is from the ______

Adtrenal Gland

more ______ results in an increased blood pressure with vasoconstriction

angiotension

_______ results in more sodium reabsorption into the kidneys, also increases H2O, because water follows sodium

Aldosterone

the system that is controlled by stretch receptors and Renin, Angiotension, aldosterone is called?

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

the difference between osmometer result and calclated result is called _______

osmol gap

Test for Na with ______

ISE Ion selective electrode

Symptoms of low sodium

lethargy, neuro muscular issues, seizures, coma, death

symptoms of high sodium

muscle spasms, restlessness, seizures

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