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1. Which core concern of social psychology is most likely to be interested in studying different styles of leadership?

the study of the impact of an individual member on a group

The interpretive perspective on socialization is based on what larger theoretical perspective?

symbolic interactionism

As she grew older, Kendra realized that she held many of the same beliefs her parents had about what is socially acceptable. Which process of socialization offers the best explanation for why Kendra and her parents agree on acceptable standards of behavior?

internalization

Frieda was not punished for denting her moms car because nothing serious happened. This is an example of what type of moral reasoning?

preconventional morality

Outcomes of socialization include all of the following, except

A desire for higher education

Which perspective of socialization draws on symbolic interaction theory and focuses on social interaction as the medium through which children acquire and reproduce culture?

interpretive perspective

Recurrent and predictable activities that are basic to day-to-day social life are referred to as

cultural routines

Which social psychology theoretical perspective argues that inconsistent beliefs produce changes in behavior?

Cognitive theory

After watching her father burn his finger on a hot iron, a young child learns not to touch the iron when the red light is on. This is an example of

observational learning

Children learn gender appropriate behaviors by all of the following ways, except

Following innate feelings on how to express either their feelings of masculinity or femininity

A cognitive structure that contains specific ideas about how teachers and students should act in a classroom setting and what that setting will be like is an example of a

Schema

All of the following are major components of the life course, except

child care

Despite her patient's lack of health insurance, the doctor was compelled by her own standards of ethical behavior to render whatever care was necessary, regardless of the price. This is an example of what type of moral reasoning?

postconventional morality

Which of the following is NOT a level of moral reasoning in Kohlbergs model of moral development?

postmodern morality

The organized structure of cognitions or thoughts we have about ourselves is called

self-schema

Convincing a target person that you are needy and deserving is what type of tactic?

supplication

Acquiring our self-concept from our perception of what others think of us is called

looking-glass self

When we organize our identities in a hierarchy according to their salience, we are doing so according to their

relative importance to the self-schema

The idea that people base their self-schema on the reactions they perceive from others during social interaction is called

reflected appraisals

In order to restore or save face, a person may do all of the following, except

become physical and hurt someone

Which tactic includes the expression of insincere agreement on important issues in order to curry favor from a target person?

opinion conformity

A concept of the self in a particular role is

a role identity

Attempts to increase a target person's liking for us is referred to as

ingratiation

Our self-concepts arise from

our interpretation of the feedback we receive from others

Social Psychology

The field systematically studies the nature and causes of human social behavior.

Alter casting

Tactics we use to impose role and identities on others that produce outcomes to our advantage.

Birth Cohort

A group of people who were born during the same period of one or several years, and therefore you share the same particular historical events around the same age.

Borderwork

Interaction across gender boundaries that is based on and strengthens such boundaries.

Cognitive process

The mental activities of an individual, including perception, memory, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making.

Cognitive structure

Any form of organization among a person's concepts and beliefs.

Cognitive Theory

A theoretical perspective based on the premise that an individuals mental activities are important determinants of behavior.

Conditioning

A process of learning in which, if a person performs a particular response and if this response is then reinforced, the response is strengthened.

The second crucial step in the genesis of self is:

role taking

Which of the following social scientists coined the term looking-glass self?

Cooley

According to Mead, in the ________ stage, children take the roles of others one at a time.

play

During the ________ stage, children learn that different roles relate to one another in specified ways.

Game

When we imagine what the group expects of us, we are taking the role of:

the generalized other

which of the following statements is false?
a) We conform more with the role expectations attached to the identities that we consider the least important.
b) The more salient an identity, the more likely we are to perceive that situations offer opportunities to enact that identity.
c) We are more active in seeking opportunities to enact salient identities.
d) The more salient an identity is to us, the more frequently we choose to perform activities that express that identity.

a) We conform more with the role expectations attached to the identities that we consider the least important

We tend to enact identities likely to bring:
a. explicit benefits.
b. extrinsic rewards.
c. both intrinsic gratifications and extrinsic rewards.
d. intrinsic gratifications.

c. both intrinsic gratifications and extrinsic rewards.

Which of the following is an example of intrinsic gratifications?
a. sense of accomplishment
b. none of these choices
c. increased pay
d. praise

a. sense of accomplishment

Which of the following is an example of extrinsic rewards?
a. praise
b. all of these choices
c. sense of accomplishment
d. pride

a. praise

Which of the following statements is false?
a. The self-schema determines how we receive and process feedback.
b. The self-schema influences the way we interpret feedback.
c. The self-schema does not influence memory.
d. The self-schema influences the processing of incoming information.

c. The self-schema does not influence memory.

According to ________ theory, the two types of discrepancy produce two different emotional states.
a. self-discrepancy
b. identity control
c. reflective appraisal
d. extrinsic rewards

a. self-discrepancy

The unaware, automatic evaluation of the self is referred to as:
a. explicit self-concept.
b. implicit self-concept.
c. implicit self-esteem.
d. explicit self-esteem.

d. explicit self-esteem.

Which of the following statements about self-esteem is false?
a. People with low self-esteem expect to perform poorly and usually do.
b. People with negative self-views seek people who think highly of them.
c. People with higher self-esteem may assert their opinions more forcefully.
d. People with high self-esteem expect to perform well and usually do.

b. People with negative self-views seek people who think highly of them.

The _________________ comprises our perceptions of our social identities and personal qualities and our generalizations about the self based on experience.

Self-Schema

The role _________________ we develop depend on the social positions available to us in society.

identities

When there is a _________________ , a component of the actual self is the opposite of a component of the ideal self or the ought self, we experience discomfort.

self-discrepancy

The evaluative component of self-concept is called _________________ .

self-esteem

Initial attraction is influenced by:
a. physical attractiveness.
b. processes of interpersonal exchange.
c. social norms.
d. all of these choices.

d. all of these choices.

In the U.S. society, there is a norm requiring that friends, lovers, and spouses be similar in age, race, religion, and socioeconomic status. This is called:
a. the norm of heterogamy.
b. the norm of androgamy.
c. the norm of homogamy.
d. the norm of hexogamy.

c. the norm of homogamy.

According to the evolutionary perspective, we prefer young, attractive partners because they have:
a. more opportunities for social mobility.
b. high reproductive potential.
c. access to more cultural resources.
d. none of these choices.

b. high reproductive potential.

"People evaluate interactions and relationships in terms of the rewards and costs that each is likely to entail." This statement most closely reflects:
a. exchange theory.
b. mere exposure theory.
c. reciprocal liking theory.
d. evolutionary theory.

a. exchange theory

According to the text, self-disclosure:
a. depends on gender.
b. reflects reciprocity.
c. all of these choices.
d. increases as a relationship grows.
Definition

c. all of these choices.

"We expect to get more out of the relationship if we put more into it. Thus, we compare our outcomes to the outcomes our partner is receiving." This statement most closely reflects:
a. reciprocity theory.
b. mere equality theory.
c. equity theory.
d. exchange theory.

c. equity theory.

A _________________ is a sequence of roles that a person enacts during his or her lifetime.

Career

People's self-schema
a. influence the processing of incoming information
b. influence the interpretation of feedback
c. influence their memory
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

The relative importance of an identity in a person's self-schema is called

Salience

Anna is a very devout Muslim, and most of her friends are as well. Anna often looks for opportunities in her everyday life to talk to others about her faith and enjoys going to informal and formal religious services. Given this information, one can safely argue that Anna's identity as a Muslim is high in

Salience

A concept of the self in a particular role is

Role Identity

The active structure of ideas and knowledge we have about ourselves that we use in processing information is called

Self-schema

Our society expects us to become grandparents at around age 45-65. This is an example of

Normative life stage

How a person feels about being a member of a particular group is called

Group self-esteem

The theory that assumes that actors are interested in maximizing socially mediated rewards in their interactions, such as money, goods, etc. while minimizing costs is referred to as _____.

social exchange theory

A state in which the self is taken as object and focuses on its own appearance, thoughts, and actions is called

self-awareness

Joe is a member of a fraternity on campus. When he is at the fraternity house, Joe thinks of himself as a brother. When Joe is in class, he thinks of himself as a student. This is an example of

situated self

The act of revealing personal info about oneself to another person is

self-disclosure

A set of interrelated propositions that organizes and explains a set of observed facts; a network of hypotheses that may be used as a basis for prediction.

Theory

Theories that make broad assumptions about human nature and offer general explanation of a wide range of diverse behaviors.

Theoretical perspectives

Demands made on a person that exceed the individual's ability to cope with them.

Stress

Personal characteristics that others view as insurmountable handicaps preventing competent or morally trustworthy behavior.

Stigma

A person in this case the learner can acquire new responses without enacting them simple by observing the behavior of another person (the model).

Social Learning Theory

Process which individuals learn skills, knowledge , values, motives, and roles appropriate to their positions in a group or society.

Socialization

reflects how we expect ourselves to think, feel, behave in a particular situation

self schema

An individuals use of internalized standards to judge his or her own behavior and reward the self.

Self-reinforcement

All conscious and unconscious attempts by people to control the images of self they project in social interaction.

Self-presentation

Individual viewed as both the active source and the passive object of reflexive behavior.

Self

A specific cognitive structure that organizes the processing of complex information about other persons, groups, and situations.

Schema

conception of the attitudes and expectations held in common by the members of the organized groups with whom they interact.

Generalized Other

Self-Presentation

Authentic is creating an image consistent with our self view.
Ideal is our most appropriate public image our ideal self.
Tactical is a public image consistent with what others expect of us.

Setting used to manage appearence. People allow themselves to violate appearence while they prepare, rehearse, and rehash perfomances.

Back Region

Behavior that results from the motivation to obtain a reward, or avoid a punishment controlled by someone else.

Extrinsically motivated behavior

Behavior that results from the motivation to achieve an internal state that an individual finds rewarding.

Intrinsically motivated behavior

process of learning in which the learner watches another person's response and observes whether that person receives reinforcement.

imitation

People use to specify who they are.

Identity

Any favorable outcome or consequence that results from a behavioral response by a person.

Reinforcement

Theoretical perspectives based on the premise that social behavior is governed by external events, especially rewards and punishments.

Reinforcement Theory

A set of functions to be performed by a person on behalf of a group which he or she is a member.

Role

Individuals concept of self in specific social roles.

Role identities

Process of imagining the role of another person situation.

Role Taking

Theoretical perspective based on the premise that a substantial portion of observable, day to day social behavior is simply persons carrying out role expectations.

Role Theory

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