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Artificial Embryo Twinning

the technique of dividing and transferring embryos into another organism for development

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

replacing nuclei of egg cells with nuclei from somatic cells

What are the steps of SCNT?

1) Isolate a donor egg cell and somatic cell; 2) Enucleate egg cell; 3) Put the nucleus into the egg cell; 4) Electric shocks; 5) Put it in the uterus

What are three animals that have been cloned in the past?

sea urchins, sheep, frogs

What is "nature vs. nurture?"

how you're raised vs. genetic code

Invitro fertilization

taking a sperm and fertilizing an egg before putting it in the uterus

Embryo splitting

the blastocyst is split into multiple two-celled blastocysts

Artificial Insemination

a woman goes to a sperm bank and gets some implanted

Why does animal cloning have such a high failure rate?

mutations in DNA

What is the effect of telomeres on cloning?

create a protein called telomerase and cells with high amounts of it last longer and have less mutations (egg cells, sperm cells, etc); cells with less are susceptible to mutations. telomeres are good for cloning

What are the steps to therapeutic cloning?

1) Isolate a donor egg cell and somatic cell; 2) Enucleate egg cell; 3) Put the nucleus into the egg cell; 4) Electric shocks; 5) Grow it in a Petri dish; 6) Harvest stem cells from it

Stem Cell

a body cell

What are the different types of stem cells?

• Embryonic Stem Cells (ES cells)
• Blastocyst Embryonic Stem Cells
• Fetal stem cells
• Umbilical cord stem cells
• Adult stem cells

What are the sources of stem cells?

fetal, umbilical, and umbilical

blastocyst?

between two sex cells and fetus; consists of 32 cells

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