detection of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects
set of mental operations that organize sensory impulses into meaningful patterns
smallest amount of stimulus you can detect 50% of the time
The smallest difference in stimulation that a person can reliably detect
signal detection theory
investigates the effects of distractions and interferences while perceiving the world
top down processing
filling in the gaps what we sense; use past experience to perceive an object, faster but prone to error
bottom up processing
feature analysis; use the feature of the object to perceive it
figure ground relationship
which visual image is the figure or background
how motivated you are to detect stimuli and what you expect to see
reduction or disappearance of sensory responsiveness when stimulus is unchanging
absence of normal levels of sensory stimulation
too much stimulation can lead to fatigue and mental confusion
direct communication from one's mind to another
perception of an event that has not yet happened
claim to receive messages about the world without relying on the usual sensory channels
study of purported psychic phenomena
is the dominant sense in human beings
the point where the optic nerve enters the retina; not sensitive to light
color names/ wavelengths of light- short-violet and blue, long- red and orange
intensity(amount) of light emitted or reflected
complexity of light (how wide of narrow the range of wavelength)
the color part of your eye
the innermost light-sensitive membrane covering the back wall of the eyeball; it is continuous with the optic nerve
center of cells has rods(low lights 120-125 million)(bright color 7- 8 Million)
3 mechanisms in the visual system- each sensitive to different wavelengths, produces hues
Opponent process theory
theory of color perception that treats pairs of colors as opposing antagonistic (after images) (bird in cage, red circle)
perceive images as groups, not isolated elements
objects that are close together are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group
objects that form a continuous form (such as a trail or a geometric figure)
objects that form a continuous form are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group
similar to top-down processing. Objects that make up a recognizable image are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group even if the image contains gaps that the mind needs to fill in.
1)monochromats-totally colorblind 2) dichromats- partially colorblind 3) trichromats- discriminate all colors
ability to maintain constant perception of an object despite these changes
distances over 50 feet/ uses only one eye (helps estimate distance)
distance is up to 50 feet/ requires use of two eyes (helps estimate distance)
the cues to depth and perception
sense of hearing
amplitude/frequency of sound waves
height of the wave
actual organ of hearing
intensity of a wave's pressure measured in decibels
frequency of the sound wave (how rapidly the air vibrates) measured in hertz (16 low to 20,000 high normal hearing)
distinguishing quality of sound - complexity(relative breath of range frequencies)
all frequencies of the audible sound spectrum are present (hissing)
get input from both ears and understand directions.
something goes wrong with the system of conducting sound to the cochlea
hairs in the cochlea are damaged, usually by loud sounds (rock concert)
sound intensity level. 0=absolute threshold.
chemicals stimulate thousands or receptors in the mouth, located primarily on the tounge.throat/cheeks and roof of the mouth.
Knoblike elevations on the tongue, containing the taste buds.
sweet, sour, salty, bitter
sense of smell
gate control theory of pain
some pain messages have a higher priority and must get through the fate in the spinal cord. The gate is not a real structure but a pattern of neural activity.
The sense of body position and movement of body parts (touching finger to nose)
equilibrium (sense of balance) related to inner ear
visual cliff experiment
Gibson and Walk. Infants as young as 6 months usually hesitate to crawl past the apparent edge of a visual cliff, which suggests that they are able to perceive depth.
people from noncarpentered cultures (no right angles) not fooled by line illusions.
Artist. Deals with perceptual ambiguities.
phantom limb sensation
amputees feel pain in their removed limb. brain is capable of feeling pain. refutes gate control theory.
rods and cones
Eyes- rods: low lights. cones: bright lights
the purported ability to move or deform inanimate objects, as metal spoons, through mental processes.