Psychology Chapter 5 Learning Quiz

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Questions from the Blackboard website that will possibly be asked on the assignment, quiz or exam.

Learning is best defined as
a) any change in behavior.
b) any change in behavior due to maturation.
c) any change in behavior due to experience.
d) a relatively permanent change in behavior due to natural development.
e) a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.

e) a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.

Who first identified the form of learning called classical conditioning?
a) John Watson
b) Ivan Pavlov
c) John Garcia
d) B. F. Skinner
e) Robert Rescorla

b) Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov accidentally stumbled on classical conditioning while studying
a) insight learning in dogs.
b) operant conditioning in rats.
c) observational learning with children.
d) digestive processes of dogs.
e) conditioning responses in pigeons.

d) digestive processes of dogs.

Regarding Ivan Pavlov, which of the following statements is true?
a) Pavlov trained in psychology in Russia.
b) Pavlov's discovery of classical conditioning was no accident.
c) Pavlov was studying the digestive system of rats when he discovered classical conditioning.
d) After discovering classical conditioning, Pavlov left the subject to others and returned to physiological studies.
e) Pavlov believed that the learned responses he observed in his research animals were reflexive.

e) Pavlov believed that the learned responses he observed in his research animals were reflexive.

Marcel sits in a cafe eating the best croissant he has ever tasted. He begins frequenting the cafe to order the croissants. He hardly notices the jingling of the cash register just before the clerk hands him the croissant. Now every time he hears the same kind of jingling from another cash register, his mouth waters. Marcel's learning is an example of
a) operant conditioning.
b) latent learning.
c) a conditioned taste aversion.
d) classical conditioning.
e) observational learning.

d) classical conditioning.

Annie's cat purrs reflexively whenever she strokes his fur. She does so only when she gets home from work
and sits on the couch and turns on the TV to watch the news. One day, Annie turns on the TV news and the
cat starts purring before she sits down to stroke his fur. Annie's cat has undergone
a) spontaneous recovery.
b) latent learning.
c) classical conditioning.
d) operant conditioning.
e) observational learning.

c) classical conditioning.

Learning in which a previously neutral stimulus becomes capable of triggering a reflexive response is called
a) operant conditioning.
b) classical conditioning.
c) instrumental conditioning.
d) stimulus-response learning.
e) spontaneous recovery.

b) classical conditioning.

Classical conditioning is best described as
a) learning by trial-and-error.
b) learning by association.
c) learning by stimulus-response.
d) instrumental conditioning.
e) learning by observation.

b) learning by association.

Classical conditioning occurs when a(n)
a) neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
b) conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
c) neutral stimulus is paired with a conditioned response.
d) conditioned stimulus is paired with a conditioned response.
e) unconditioned stimulus is paired with a conditioned response.

a) neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.

A reflexive reaction triggered by an unconditioned stimulus is a(n)
a) conditioned response.
b) unconditioned response.
c) conditioned stimulus.
d) neutral response.
e) operant response.

b) unconditioned response.

In Pavlov's classical conditioning experiments, a buzzer or tone became the
a) conditioned response.
b) acquired stimulus.
c) unconditioned stimulus.
d) unconditioned response.
e) conditioned stimulus.

e) conditioned stimulus.

Pavlov found that the strength of a conditioned response increased with the number of pairings of the
a) CR and UR.
b) CS and US.
c) CS and CR.
d) CS and UR.
e) CR and US.

b) CS and US.

In classical conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus is one that causes a(n)
a) uncontrolled response.
b) controlled response.
c) unconditioned response.
d) conditioned response.
e) neutral response.

c) unconditioned response.

A neutral stimulus is one that
a) does not elicit an unconditioned response.
b) elicits an unconditioned response.
c) elicits a conditioned response.
d) elicits a controlled response.
e) returns spontaneously during spontaneous recovery.

a) does not elicit an unconditioned response.

In classical conditioning, if you combine a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus will become a(n)
a) unconditioned stimulus.
b) conditioned stimulus.
c) controlled stimulus.
d) uncontrolled stimulus.
e) unconditioned response.

b) conditioned stimulus.

Samantha is a psychology major with a boyfriend named Lee. She likes everything about Lee except his penchant for watching old war movies. The movies make her yawn. One day, when Lee comes over, she starts to yawn before he puts the tape in the VCR. "Oh no!" she thinks to herself, "I've been classically conditioned and Lee is the
a) conditioned response."
b) conditioned stimulus."
c) unconditioned response."
d) unconditioned stimulus."
e) operant response."

b) conditioned stimulus."

A puff of air to the eye causes a reflexive blink. If you precede the puff of air with a buzzer, eventually the buzzer will cause a blink. In this example, the puff of air is the
a) unconditioned stimulus.
b) conditioned stimulus.
c) neutral stimulus.
d) unconditioned response.
e) conditioned response.

a) unconditioned stimulus.

Which pattern best describes what happens once classical conditioning occurs?
a) UR elicits the US
b) CS elicits the CR
c) NS leads to no response
d) NS + US leads to UR
e) US + CS leads to UR

b) CS elicits the CR

A puff of air to the eye causes a reflexive blink. If you precede the puff of air with a buzzer, eventually the buzzer will cause a blink. In this example, the buzzer begins as the ________ and eventually becomes the ________.
a) neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus
b) conditioned stimulus; neutral stimulus
c) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus
d) neutral stimulus; unconditioned stimulus
e) unconditioned stimulus; neutral stimulus

a) neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus

Dr. Karaskopolis is a dentist specializing in the treatment of patients with fears of dental procedures. To help patients gradually reduce and eliminate their fears, Karaskopolis uses anesthetics and painless dental techniques. This is an example of which concept from classical conditioning?
a) Spontaneous recovery
b) Stimulus generalization
c) Stimulus discrimination
d) Extinction
e) Higher-order conditioning

d) Extinction

Lydia sees a behavioral therapist to eliminate her fear of heights. After several sessions, Lydia is successful. A year later, however, Lydia's fear of heights suddenly returns. Lydia has experienced
a) higher-order conditioning.
b) spontaneous recovery.
c) stimulus generalization.
d) stimulus discrimination.
e) latent learning.

b) spontaneous recovery.

A conditioned response will weaken and eventually disappear if the CS is presented in the absence of the US. This is referred to as
a) spontaneous recovery.
b) generalization.
c) discrimination.
d) reconditioning.
e) extinction.

e) extinction.

Which of the following is the best definition of spontaneous recovery?
a) The weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response over time
b) Displaying a conditioned response to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus
c) Displaying a conditioned response to new neutral stimuli
d) Displaying a conditioned response in the absence of the conditioned stimulus
e) The return of a conditioned response following extinction

e) The return of a conditioned response following extinction

Amy used classical conditioning to train her dog to salivate every time she played her favorite classical CD. She did it by playing the CD right before filling the dog's bowl with food, doing so for three days. A week after the conditioning experiment, the response was extinguished. In order to see a spontaneous recovery, Amy would have to
a) do nothing other than play the CD again.
b) feed the dog right after playing the CD again.
c) play the CD after feeding the dog.
d) wait until the dog is salivating, and then play the CD.
e) play the CD while the dog is eating.

a) do nothing other than play the CD again.

Following his experience in the military, Hans developed a classically conditioned fear response to radio static. After he left the military, the response extinguished. However, after not hearing radio static for several months, Hans again shows the conditioned fear response. Hans's experience is a demonstration of
a) stimulus generalization.
b) stimulus discrimination.
c) reconditioning.
d) spontaneous recovery.
e) higher-order conditioning.

d) spontaneous recovery.

Following extinction, a conditioned response can be learned again more quickly than it was learned originally. This is known as
a) spontaneous recovery.
b) generalization.
c) discrimination.
d) reconditioning.
e) higher-order conditioning.

d) reconditioning.

Stimulus generalization occurs when the conditioned
a) response reappears after extinction.
b) response is displayed following exposure to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus.
c) response is not displayed following presentation of the conditioned stimulus.
d) stimulus elicits responses that are generally like the conditioned response.
e) stimulus generalizes to other settings.

b) response is displayed following exposure to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus.

Through classical conditioning, Alyce has developed a fear of mice. She also shows a fear response to gerbils and hamsters. Alyce is demonstrating
a) stimulus generalization.
b) stimulus discrimination.
c) spontaneous recovery.
d) extinction.
e) reconditioning.

a) stimulus generalization.

According to the text, experiences of déjà vu may be explained by which concept from classical conditioning?
a) Extinction
b) Stimulus generalization
c) Stimulus discrimination
d) Spontaneous recovery
e) Higher-order conditioning

b) Stimulus generalization

In stimulus discrimination, stimuli similar to the
a) conditioned stimulus elicit the conditioned response.
b) unconditioned stimulus elicit the conditioned response.
c) conditioned stimulus do not elicit the conditioned response.
d) unconditioned stimulus do not elicit the conditioned response.
e) unconditioned stimulus elicit an unconditioned response.

c) conditioned stimulus do not elicit the conditioned response.

Through classical conditioning, Eduardo has developed a fear of dogs. However, he fears only large, longhaired dogs and not small, longhaired dogs or large, shorthaired dogs. Eduardo is demonstrating
a) spontaneous recovery.
b) stimulus discrimination.
c) stimulus generalization.
d) latent learning.
e) extinction.

b) stimulus discrimination.

Nine-year-old Brandon has a crush on his classmate, Lydia, and blushes whenever anyone mentions her name. This morning, he showed stimulus generalization when he
a) coughed when his sister mentioned Lydia's name.
b) blushed when his mother mentioned Lydia's name.
c) blushed when no one mentioned anyone's name.
d) blushed when his brother mentioned Elise, the girl who sits next to Lydia.
e) blushed when the teacher called on Lydia to answer a question.

d) blushed when his brother mentioned Elise, the girl who sits next to Lydia.

Of the following five people who have some fear of dentistry, which is exhibiting higher-order conditioning?
a) Arne, who thought he had gotten over his fear of dentists but suddenly experiences fear during his annual visit
b) Bertrand, who is fearful not only when visiting his dentist, but also when visiting his orthodontist
c) Carlos, who, after being exposed to anesthetics and painless techniques, has eliminated his fear of the dentist
d) Darla, who is fearful at the sight of her dentist's drill but not at the sight of the teeth-cleaning equipment
e) Edna, who cringes when she hears her dentist's name

e) Edna, who cringes when she hears her dentist's name

An animal has been classically conditioned to fear a red light that has been paired with an electric shock. It then becomes conditioned to fear a blue light that has been paired with the red light. This is an example of
a) spontaneous recovery.
b) extinction.
c) higher-order conditioning.
d) stimulus discrimination.
e) stimulus generalization.

c) higher-order conditioning.

Higher-order conditioning occurs when a(n) ________ is paired with a(n) ________.
a) neutral stimulus; unconditioned stimulus
b) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus
c) neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus
d) unconditioned stimulus; neutral stimulus
e) neutral stimulus; conditioned response

c) neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus

Increasing the number of pairings of the US and CS will
a) weaken the CR.
b) strengthen the CR.
c) weaken the CR at first, and then strengthen it.
d) strengthen the CR at first, and then weaken it.
e) have no effect on the CR.

b) strengthen the CR.

The strongest conditioned response occurs when the
a) CS and US are presented simultaneously.
b) CS is presented first and remains on during the presentation of the US.
c) CS is presented first and is terminated before the presentation of the US.
d) US is presented first and is terminated before the presentation of the CS.
e) US is presented first and remains on during the presentation of the CS.

b) CS is presented first and remains on during the presentation of the US.

Wendy likes horror movies. She especially loves the eerie music that precedes the scariest scenes. In fact, she's been classically conditioned so that whenever she hears that kind of music, even outside the movie theater, she gets goose bumps. What would make Wendy's conditioned response to the music even stronger?
a) Having a longer period of time between the music and the showing of a scary movie scene
b) Hearing louder eerie music
c) Seeing fewer movies with eerie music, but hearing the music more often outside the theater
d) Hearing the eerie music at the same time that the scary scenes are shown on the screen
e) Hearing the eerie music after the scary movie scenes

d) Hearing the eerie music at the same time that the scary scenes are shown on the screen

Rescorla injected a ________ element into classical conditioning.
a) cognitive
b) behaviorist
c) humanistic
d) mechanistic
e) psychodynamic

a) cognitive

Who challenged the conventional behaviorist view that classical conditioning is simply a result of repeated pairings of neutral and unconditioned stimuli?
a) Rosalie Raynor
b) B. F. Skinner
c) John B. Watson
d) Robert Rescorla
e) E. L. Thorndike

d) Robert Rescorla

Rescorla's view of classical conditioning focuses on the extent to which the CS ________ the US.
a) interferes with
b) predicts
c) follows
d) reduces
e) is elicited by

b) predicts

Regarding Rescorla's views on classical conditioning, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a) Rescorla believes that classical conditioning depends on the reliability with which the CS predicts the US.
b) Rescorla believes that classical conditioning depends on the simple pairing of stimuli.
c) Rescorla's perspective on classical conditioning can be described as cognitive.
d) Rescorla suggests that the more consistently the CS signals the occurrence of the US, the stronger the conditioned response.
e) Rescorla believes that classical conditioning has important survival implications for animals.

b) Rescorla believes that classical conditioning depends on the simple pairing of stimuli.

Who is most closely associated with the study of conditioned emotional reactions?
a) John Watson
b) Ivan Pavlov
c) John Garcia
d) B. F. Skinner
e) Albert Bandura

a) John Watson

Watson investigated the classical conditioning of which type of responses?
a) Anger
b) Sadness
c) Happiness
d) Fear
e) Sexual arousal

d) Fear

What is Rosalie Rayner's role in the history of psychology?
a) She was a student assistant who helped Pavlov with his experiments on classical conditioning in animals.
b) She was a colleague who helped Skinner with his experiments on operant conditioning in animals.
c) She developed a cognitive theory of classical conditioning.
d) She created the puzzle box used by Edward Thorndike.
e) She was a student assistant who helped Watson with his experiments on classical conditioning in humans.

e) She was a student assistant who helped Watson with his experiments on classical conditioning in humans.

In Watson's research with Little Albert, what was the UR?
a) A loud sound
b) A white rat
c) Fear of loud sounds
d) Fear of white rabbits
e) A Santa Claus mask

c) Fear of loud sounds

When two-year-old Clarice was playing in the basement, a large burst of thunder scared her at the same time that she saw a spider. Now Clarice has a spider phobia. Clarice's experience is an example of which type of learning?
a) Operant conditioning
b) Observational learning
c) Vicarious learning
d) Unintentional learning
e) Classical conditioning

e) Classical conditioning

An acquired fear response is called a(n)
a) conditioned emotional reaction.
b) operant response.
c) déjà vu feeling.
d) shaping consequence.
e) negative reinforcer.

a) conditioned emotional reaction.

In Watson's research with Little Albert, the rat began as the ________ and became the ________.
a) CR; CS
b) UR; US
c) NS; CS
d) NS; CR
e) CS; NS

c) NS; CS

Under which condition would Watson's experiments on classical conditioning be replicated today?
a) If the researchers obtained parental permission to expose the child to intense fear
b) If the researchers used methods to extinguish the fears after completing their experiments
c) If the researchers followed the children for several years to make sure they were not "damaged" by their participation in the experiment
d) If the researchers taught parents how to extinguish their children's fears
e) The experiments would not be replicated even with the parents' permission.

e) The experiments would not be replicated even with the parents' permission.

Little Peter liked milk and cookies and was afraid of rabbits. A researcher wanted him to like rabbits. So he gave Peter a glass of milk and cookies while introducing a caged rabbit into the room. Eventually, Peter was relaxed enough by the milk and cookies to pat the rabbit while holding him in his lap. About a week later, Peter asked to skip the milk and cookies and just be allowed to play with the rabbit. In this study, the milk and cookies were the ________, and the rabbit became the ________.
a) US; NS
b) CR; CS
c) NS; CR
d) CR; UR
e) US; CS

e) US; CS

Which pioneer of psychology can we thank for the introduction of advertisements linking sexual cues with products?
a) Ivan Pavlov
b) Sigmund Freud
c) B. F. Skinner
d) Edward Thorndike
e) John B. Watson

e) John B. Watson

Although Little Albert was classically conditioned to fear a rat, he also began to fear dogs, rabbits, and a Santa Claus mask. This is an example of
a) spontaneous recovery.
b) stimulus generalization.
c) stimulus discrimination.
d) extinction.
e) behavior therapy.

b) stimulus generalization.

A magazine advertisement for an SUV shows a sexy model leaning against the car. The two are being paired so that the sexual arousal elicited by the model will become associated with the car. In classical conditioning terms, what is the model's role?
a) She's a neutral stimulus.
b) She's a conditioned response.
c) She's a conditioned stimulus.
d) She's an unconditioned response.
e) She's an unconditioned stimulus.

e) She's an unconditioned stimulus.

Jessica's grandfather used to make her oatmeal every morning. Now that he's passed away, whenever she makes herself oatmeal in the morning, she remembers him and feels good inside. Jessica's good feelings are the result of
a) observational learning.
b) operant conditioning.
c) reconditioning.
d) classical conditioning.
e) spontaneous recovery.

d) classical conditioning.

Excessive fears, like Little Albert's fear of rats, are called
a) phobias.
b) obsessions.
c) compulsions.
d) neuroses.
e) superstitions.

a) phobias.

When Salina was a young girl, a dog viciously attacked her as she was walking along a white picket fence. Since then, she displays intense fear of white picket fences. Salina is demonstrating
a) a discriminative stimulus.
b) extinction.
c) shaping.
d) a phobia.
e) spontaneous recovery.

d) a phobia.

Advertising makes use of classical conditioning. For example, a product is presented along with some naturally appealing stimulus (such as a physically attractive person). In this case, the product begins as the
a) unconditioned stimulus.
b) neutral stimulus.
c) conditioned stimulus.
d) unconditioned response.
e) conditioned response.

b) neutral stimulus.

The systematic application of learning principles to help people overcome phobias is called
a) humanistic therapy.
b) cognitive therapy.
c) conditioning therapy.
d) behavior therapy.
e) re-exposure therapy.

d) behavior therapy.

John, a recovering drug addict, has strong cravings for a fix whenever he passes the street corner where he used to buy the drug. In classical conditioning terms, the cravings are the ________ and the street corner is the ________.
a) UR; US
b) CS; CR
c) CS; UR
d) CR; CS
e) UR; NS

d) CR; CS

Which researcher is well known for studying conditioned taste aversion?
a) John B. Watson
b) Ivan Pavlov
c) John Garcia
d) B. F. Skinner
e) Edward Thorndike

c) John Garcia

A researcher found that rats avoid drinking from bottles in a room in which they had received exposure to radiation that subsequently made them ill. This demonstrates
a) higher-order conditioning.
b) stimulus generalization.
c) conditioned taste aversion.
d) a fixed-interval schedule.
e) behavior therapy.

c) conditioned taste aversion.

Sue was eating her favorite food, spaghetti and meatballs, when she became nauseated. Although the nausea was due to a 24-hour virus and had absolutely nothing to do with the food, she never regained an appetite for spaghetti and meatballs after that. Sue had developed a(n)
a) eating disorder.
b) latent food habit.
c) food phobia.
d) taste avoidance.
e) taste aversion.

e) taste aversion.

The most shocking element in Garcia's research on taste aversion was that
a) animals were sickened by radiation.
b) animals would avoid drinking water.
c) animals would drink even if they were sick.
d) conditioned taste aversion could be developed even when the CS was presented several hours before the US.
e) conditioned taste aversion could be developed only when the US immediately followed the CS.

d) conditioned taste aversion could be developed even when the CS was presented several hours before the US.

Cassandra, a recovering alcoholic for 15 years, no longer has a physical addiction to alcohol. However, whenever she sees her old "drinking buddies," she begins to have cravings for alcohol. Cassandra's experience is an example of
a) a phobia.
b) operant conditioning.
c) classical conditioning.
d) observational learning.
e) negative reinforcement.

c) classical conditioning.

In Garcia's research on taste aversions, what was the neutral stimulus?
a) Radiation
b) The taste of the water
c) Nausea
d) Electric shocks
e) The taste of the food

b) The taste of the water

Researchers have been able to successfully condition immune system suppression by linking saccharin-sweetened water with a(n)
a) electrical shock.
b) drug that induces nausea.
c) immune-suppressant drug.
d) immune-suppressant response.
e) immune system deactivator.

c) immune-suppressant drug.

Regarding the use of classical conditioning to suppress the immune system, which of the following is true?
a) Researchers were unable to condition the immune system in rats by using odors.
b) Researchers were unable to condition the immune system in rats by using sound.
c) Researchers were able to suppress the immune system of humans by using a distinctively flavored drink.
d) Researchers have successfully applied their ability to suppress the immune system in the fight against cancer.
e) Researchers have conditioned the immune system of humans by using odors and sounds.

c) Researchers were able to suppress the immune system of humans by using a distinctively flavored drink.

In an application of conditioning principles reported in the text, how were sheep ranchers able to protect their sheep from coyotes?
a) The sheep ranchers shot coyotes.
b) Live sheep were injected with a poison that would kill coyotes.
c) Sheep carcasses were injected with poison that would kill coyotes.
d) Sheep carcasses were injected with a poison that would sicken but not kill coyotes.
e) Sheep were classically conditioned to fear coyotes.

d) Sheep carcasses were injected with a poison that would sicken but not kill coyotes.

An important health implication of the research in which rats were conditioned to associate saccharine-sweetened water with an immune-suppressant drug is that
a) rats could be exterminated with saccharine-sweetened water instead of with chemicals that might be harmful to humans.
b) saccharine should be avoided by humans, because it has the potential to suppress the immune system.
c) people might be conditioned to suppress their own immune system after organ transplants.
d) immune-suppressant drugs can be made more palatable with the use of saccharine.
e) saccharine could be used to enhance the immune functioning of humans suffering from cancer.

c) people might be conditioned to suppress their own immune system after organ transplants.

Pauline became ill after eating eggs contaminated with salmonella. She subsequently becomes nauseated whenever she sees eggs. This is an example of
a) a conditioned taste aversion.
b) higher-order conditioning.
c) spontaneous recovery.
d) a fixed-ratio schedule.
e) a conditioned emotional reaction.

a) a conditioned taste aversion.

Summarize the principles of classical conditioning.

Ans: Classical conditioning involves learning an association between two stimuli. It makes use of a pre-existing reflexive response. For example, a puff of air into the eye causes a blink. The puff of air is the unconditioned stimulus (US) and the blink is the unconditioned response (UR). A different, neutral stimulus (NS) such as a tone is presented in conjunction with the US. After several combinations, the US can be withdrawn and the blink is elicited by the tone alone. At this point the tone is the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the blink is the conditioned response (CR).

Behaviors that result in satisfying effects are strengthened, and behaviors that result in discomfort are weakened. This is known as
a) the Law of Effect.
b) classical conditioning.
c) higher-order conditioning.
d) Pavlovian conditioning.
e) learning through association.

a) the Law of Effect.

The Law of Effect was proposed by
a) Pavlov.
b) Skinner.
c) Thorndike.
d) Watson.
e) Tolman.

c) Thorndike.

Which of the following did Thorndike use in studying animal learning?
a) A Skinner box
b) A token economy
c) Programmed instruction
d) A conditioning chamber
e) A puzzle box

e) A puzzle box

Modern psychologists refer to the first part of the Law of Effect as ________ and to the second part as ________.
a) classical conditioning; operant conditioning
b) operant conditioning; classical conditioning
c) reinforcement; punishment
d) punishment; reinforcement
e) trial and error; latent learning

c) reinforcement; punishment

To which area of human behavior was Thorndike particularly excited about applying principles of animal learning?
a) Parenting
b) Law enforcement
c) Medicine
d) Advertising
e) Education

e) Education

Thorndike argued that animals in a "puzzle box" were able to find their way out because they used
a) planning.
b) insight.
c) instincts.
d) reasoning.
e) trial and error.

e) trial and error.

Which of the following is true about B. F. Skinner?
a) Skinner first focused his research on Thorndike's Law of Effect.
b) Skinner laid down the groundwork for an explanation of learning based on the association between responses and their consequences.
c) Skinner believed in studying thoughts and feelings in addition to readily observable behaviors.
d) Skinner supported a controversial view that all behavior is completely determined by environmental and genetic influences.
e) Skinner disagreed with Pavlov, saying that behavior is never reflexive.

d) Skinner supported a controversial view that all behavior is completely determined by environmental and genetic influences.

Skinner experimented mostly with
a) children.
b) adults.
c) rats and pigeons.
d) dogs.
e) cats and mice.

c) rats and pigeons.

Which view holds that behavior is completely determined by environmental or genetic influences?
a) Classical conditioning
b) Radical behaviorism
c) Behavior modification
d) The cognitive perspective
e) Higher-order conditioning

b) Radical behaviorism

Thorndike is to ________ as Skinner is to ________.
a) classical conditioning; the Law of Effect
b) classical conditioning; operant conditioning
c) operant conditioning; the Law of Effect
d) the Law of Effect; classical conditioning
e) the Law of Effect; operant conditioning

e) the Law of Effect; operant conditioning

The process of learning in which the consequences of a response determine the probability that the response will be repeated is called
a) classical conditioning.
b) operant conditioning.
c) insight learning.
d) observational learning.
e) latent learning.

b) operant conditioning.

Operant conditioning is also known as
a) classical conditioning.
b) vicarious learning.
c) observational learning.
d) instrumental learning.
e) cognitive learning.

d) instrumental learning.

Which pioneer in psychology wrote Walden Two, a fictional story of a utopian society in which principles of reinforcement helped people live better lives?
a) John B. Watson
b) Ivan Pavlov
c) Edward Thorndike
d) Robert Rescorla
e) B. F. Skinner

e) B. F. Skinner

Which of the following correctly sums up the plot of Walden Two?
a) A researcher raises a generation of "super" rats based on the principles of positive reinforcement.
b) A poet who is dissatisfied with society retires to a cabin in the woods next to a pond, where he contemplates nature.
c) In a utopian society, the principles of reinforcement allow people to lead happy, fulfilling lives.
d) An American psychologist joins a kibbutz in Israel in order to study the communal approach to living.
e) A scientist uses the principles of classical conditioning to raise his four children.

c) In a utopian society, the principles of reinforcement allow people to lead happy, fulfilling lives.

Which of the following is the best definition of the term reinforcer?
a) A response that operates on the environment to produce certain consequences
b) A stimulus or event that increases the probability that the response it follows will be repeated
c) Behavior acquired through coincidental association of a response and a reinforcement
d) A cue that signals that reinforcement is available if the subject makes a particular response
e) The introduction of an aversive stimulus after a response occurs

b) A stimulus or event that increases the probability that the response it follows will be repeated

Your significant other gives you a compliment, and you smile at him or her. The probability that he or she will give you another compliment increases. This is an example of which type of learning?
a) Latent learning
b) Insight learning
c) Observational learning
d) Classical conditioning
e) Instrumental learning

e) Instrumental learning

Skinner found that coincidental association of a behavior and a reinforcement may result in
a) extinction.
b) superstitious behavior.
c) stimulus discrimination.
d) higher-order conditioning.
e) the development of phobias.

b) superstitious behavior.

Which of the following is true about negative reinforcers?
a) They always weaken the behavior they follow.
b) They make it more likely that a behavior will be repeated.
c) They have the opposite effect on behavior from positive reinforcers.
d) They introduce a stimulus after a response occurs.
e) They introduce a stimulus before a response occurs.

b) They make it more likely that a behavior will be repeated.

A discriminative stimulus signals that
a) reinforcement is available for a particular response.
b) an unconditioned stimulus is about to occur.
c) a discriminable stimulus is about to occur.
d) a neutral stimulus is about to occur.
e) an approximately correct response will receive reinforcement.

a) reinforcement is available for a particular response.

Six-year-old Samuel learns to answer the phone only when it rings and to wait for a dial tone before dialing his grandmother's number. Each time he does either, he is rewarded by hearing grandma's voice. In operant conditioning terms, the ringing of the phone and the dial tone are
a) positive reinforcers.
b) negative reinforcers.
c) discriminative stimuli.
d) primary reinforcers.
e) secondary reinforcers.

c) discriminative stimuli.

An "Open" sign in the window of a store that tells Ivan that he can go in to purchase a beverage he finds particularly reinforcing. In this example, the sign serves as a
a) primary reinforcer.
b) discriminative stimulus.
c) conditioned response.
d) conditioned stimulus.
e) secondary reinforcer.

b) discriminative stimulus.

Presentation of a rewarding stimulus serves as ________, whereas removal of an aversive stimulus serves as ________.
a) positive punishment; negative punishment
b) negative punishment; positive punishment
c) negative reinforcement; positive reinforcement
d) positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement
e) reinforcement; punishment

d) positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement

Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
a) A mother picks up her infant when he cries, thereby reducing the annoyance of his cries.
b) A father yells at his daughter for running across the street after her ball.
c) A grandmother gives her granddaughter a "time out" when she misbehaves, thereby causing her to calm down.
d) A grandfather gives his grandson $10 for every "A" on his report card, thereby strengthening his grandson's study habits.
e) A caregiver removes a child from the "block play center" when he is throwing blocks, thereby causing him to cry.

a) A mother picks up her infant when he cries, thereby reducing the annoyance of his cries.

Zorba gives his dog a treat for rolling over. Zorba is using
a) positive punishment.
b) negative punishment.
c) negative reinforcement.
d) positive reinforcement.
e) classical conditioning.

d) positive reinforcement.

Taking headache medicine to relieve pain is an example of
a) positive punishment.
b) negative punishment.
c) positive reinforcement.
d) negative reinforcement.
e) superstitious behavior.

d) negative reinforcement.

The loud buzzing sound of your alarm clock wakes you up. You get out of bed to turn it off. You have just experienced
a) negative reinforcement.
b) punishment.
c) positive reinforcement.
d) avoidance learning.
e) latent learning.

a) negative reinforcement.

Stimuli that are naturally reinforcing are referred to as ________, whereas stimuli that develop reinforcing properties through association are called ________.
a) indiscriminative stimuli; discriminative stimuli
b) primary reinforcers; secondary reinforcers
c) positive reinforcers; negative reinforcers
d) primary stimuli; secondary stimuli
e) shapers; successive approximators

b) primary reinforcers; secondary reinforcers

Primary reinforcers are
a) rewarding only because of their association with secondary reinforcers.
b) the most powerful reinforcers an animal learns.
c) intrinsically rewarding.
d) reinforcers that are learned through classical conditioning.
e) also called conditioned reinforcers.

c) intrinsically rewarding.

Graham received secondary reinforcement when
a) the woman in the bakery gave him a giant cookie in exchange for a dollar.
b) the dealer gave him money in exchange for a baseball card.
c) the plumber fixed the leaky faucet that was so annoying to him.
d) he was finally able to fall asleep on the plane.
e) his big brother allowed him to try out his new video game for the first time.

b) the dealer gave him money in exchange for a baseball card.

Researchers use the method of successive approximations in the process of
a) counterconditioning.
b) higher-order conditioning.
c) escape learning.
d) shaping.
e) extinction.

d) shaping.

Georgette and Leon are two sophomore college students taking a course in learning. As part of their course requirements, Georgette and Leon will train a rat to press a bar. Because the rat doesn't initially even go near the bar, they will have to reinforce the rat for a series of responses that are closer and closer to the correct response. Which technique will Georgette and Leon be utilizing?
a) Token economy program
b) Insight learning
c) Latent learning
d) Higher-order conditioning
e) Shaping

e) Shaping

Which of the following demonstrates the extinction of an operant response?
a) Ginny, who learns to dress herself when her mother reinforces her for accomplishing each small step in the process
b) Ron, who receives praise every time he puts his schoolbooks away
c) Hermione, who stops calling out in class without first raising her hand when Professor Snape fails to respond to her
d) Harry, who learns secret routes that provide an escape from the Dark Forest when he is under attack
e) Malfoy, who leaves school two days early at Christmas break to avoid the rush of holiday traffic

c) Hermione, who stops calling out in class without first raising her hand when Professor Snape fails to respond to her

Compared to continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement results in ________ learning that is ________ to extinguish.
a) faster; harder
b) slower; harder
c) faster; easier
d) slower; easier
e) faster; just as difficult

b) slower; harder

The Rosedale Elementary School is holding a charity drive. Parents are asked to reward the children's book reading by giving them monetary donations. Hillary receives $1.00 from her parents for every book read. Mark receives $1.00 for each hour he spends reading. How will the different reward schedules MOST likely impact the children's reading behavior?
a) Mark will read more books than Hillary.
b) Hillary will spend more time reading books than Mark.
c) Both will read the same number of books.
d) Hillary will read more books than Mark.
e) Both will spend the same amount of time reading.

d) Hillary will read more books than Mark.

Vlad receives $100 for every ten telemarketing calls he makes. This is an example of which schedule of reinforcement?
a) Fixed-ratio
b) Variable-ratio
c) Fixed-interval
d) Variable-interval
e) Continuous

a) Fixed-ratio

The rats in Dr. Rexington's learning laboratory are on an "FR-7" schedule of reinforcement. What does this mean?
a) The rats will receive a food pellet after every seventh bar press.
b) The rats will receive a food pellet an average of every seven bar presses.
c) The rats will receive a food pellet every seven minutes.
d) The rats will receive a food pellet an average of every seven minutes.
e) The rats will receive a food pellet every seven minutes, unless they press the bar seven times in a shorter period of time.

a) The rats will receive a food pellet after every seventh bar press.

A child receives a dime for weeding dandelions from the yard. Sometimes he gets paid after pulling as few as three, sometimes he pulls as many as seven before getting paid. On the average, he gets paid a dime for every five dandelions. This is an example of which schedule of reinforcement?
a) Fixed-ratio
b) Variable-ratio
c) Fixed-interval
d) Variable-interval
e) Continuous reinforcement

b) Variable-ratio

Which of the following best describes charted data for a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement?
a) Slight dip in responses after reinforcement
b) Slow, steady rate of response
c) Responses decrease after an initial steep increase
d) Fast, steady rates of response
e) Responses pause after each reinforcement

b) Slow, steady rate of response

A schedule of reinforcement in which the first response performed after a specific amount of time has passed is reinforced is called a
a) fixed-ratio schedule.
b) fixed-interval schedule.
c) variable-interval schedule.
d) variable-ratio schedule.
e) continuous reinforcement schedule.

b) fixed-interval schedule.

Which of the following people is on a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement?
a) Phillip, who is playing a slot machine at a casino
b) Colette, whose weekly allowance varies according to the income her salesman father took in that week
c) Jim, whose teacher schedules three exams for the semester, one for every five weeks
d) Elissa, who receives a monthly performance evaluation
e) Angela, who receives compensation for every student she recruits for her college

a) Phillip, who is playing a slot machine at a casino

Megan loves to ski. One year, she accepted an invitation to stay with friends in a ski house in the mountains for four weeks at the end of winter. In the first week, the snow came after two days, and then it melted after a day. In the second week, she had to wait three days before there was snow, and it didn't last. In the third week, there was only enough snow for skiing on the fifth day, and by the fourth week, the weather turned warm and there was no snow at all. Megan was being rewarded with snow on which time schedule?
a) Fixed-interval
b) Variable-interval
c) Variable-ratio
d) Fixed-ratio
e) Continuous

b) Variable-interval

A "scalloped" response pattern is typical of which type of reinforcement schedule?
a) Fixed-ratio
b) Fixed-interval
c) Variable-ratio
d) Variable-interval
e) Continuous

b) Fixed-interval

Helena has learned that she gets motion sickness easily. If Helena takes medicine before a boat ride so she doesn't get seasick, she is demonstrating
a) avoidance learning.
b) classical conditioning.
c) stimulus discrimination.
d) escape learning.
e) shaping.

a) avoidance learning.

Paul has turned to alcohol in order to flee from the problems in his marriage. Paul's behavior is an example of
a) avoidance learning.
b) escape learning.
c) latent learning.
d) insight learning.
e) observational learning.

b) escape learning.

Which of the following statements is true about punishment?
a) Punishment and negative reinforcement are different concepts.
b) Punishment involves the removal of an aversive stimulus.
c) Punishment involves the presentation of a negative reinforcer.
d) Punishment is the flip side of negative reinforcement.
e) Punished behavior is more likely to be repeated.

a) Punishment and negative reinforcement are different concepts.

Dominic was negatively reinforced when
a) his father canceled their date for the zoo.
b) his brother teased him and called him "chubby."
c) he removed the shoe that had a pebble in it.
d) the teacher told him to sit quietly in the corner.
e) he lost his favorite baseball cap.

c) he removed the shoe that had a pebble in it.

Amita was just grounded by her parents. Which method of punishment are Amita's parents using?
a) Corporal punishment
b) Removal of a reinforcer
c) Verbal reprimand
d) Time-out
e) Harsh punishment

b) Removal of a reinforcer

The American Academy of Pediatrics encourages which means of disciplining children?
a) Using mostly reinforcement
b) Using a mix of punishment and reinforcement on preschool kids and only reinforcement on school-age children
c) Using mostly punishment
d) Using only reinforcement on preschool kids and a mix of punishment and reinforcement on school-age children
e) Using a mix of reinforcement and punishment at all ages

a) Using mostly reinforcement

Four-year-old Phil's parents believe in using corporal punishment on him. Yesterday he was spanked for calling his father a "dummy head" when he was angry. Research on punishment shows that Phil's parents can expect Phil to
a) never call his father a "dummy head" again.
b) express his anger by reasonably talking to his father about how he feels from now on.
c) respect his father from now on.
d) never call his father a name to his face, but still call him names when he's not around.
e) become a wimp and a victim around other children.

d) never call his father a name to his face, but still call him names when he's not around.

The broad application of operant conditioning to strengthen adaptive behavior and weaken maladaptive behavior is called
a) biofeedback.
b) behavior modification.
c) token economy.
d) higher-order conditioning.
e) programmed instruction.

b) behavior modification.

Rico attends technical college where he is using technology to study for the GED. His computer guides Rico through an inventory of increasingly challenging questions. If he answers correctly, Rico moves up in challenge; if he answers incorrectly, the questions decrease in difficulty. Rico is using which application of operant conditioning?
a) The Skinner box
b) Behavior modification
c) Token economy
d) Biofeedback
e) Programmed instruction

e) Programmed instruction

The "tokens" in a token economy are
a) always coins.
b) negative reinforcers.
c) secondary reinforcers.
d) primary reinforcers.
e) discriminative stimuli.

c) secondary reinforcers.

Mr. Bonoir gives students stars on their homework when it is done well. A student can exchange 10 stars for a treat. This is a form of
a) token economy.
b) biofeedback.
c) higher-order conditioning.
d) counterconditioning.
e) programmed instruction.

a) token economy.

Define punishment and discuss why psychologists advise parents not to use punishment in disciplining their children.

Ans: Punishment is the opposite of reinforcement. Reinforcement increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated, and punishment decreases that likelihood. Punishment involves the introduction of an aversive stimulus, as when a teenager receives a speeding ticket, or the removal of a stimulus that is rewarding, as when a teenager loses driving privileges because he received a speeding ticket. Psychologists advise parents to use mostly reinforcement, and to avoid the use of punishment for disciplining their children, for several reasons. First, punishment does not model the correct behavior. Children who are punished learn what not to do but are not taught what they should do. Second, punishment can have undesirable consequences. It often creates fear of or hostility toward the punisher. Those negative feelings can also generalize so that a child might fear or become hostile toward any authority figures. Third, punishment can lead to abuse. Because a parent is reinforced when the bad behavior stops after a spanking, that parent may resort to more frequent and more severe spankings, and hence to physical abuse. Abused children are angry, but because they fear the abuser, they look for someone weaker on whom to take out their aggression. Finally, punishment models inappropriate behavior, teaching a child that this is an acceptable way to resolve interpersonal conflicts.

Learning that occurs without the opportunity of first performing the learned response or being reinforced for it is
a) operant conditioning
b) higher-order conditioning
c) classical conditioning
d) creative learning
e) cognitive learning

e) cognitive learning

Cognitive learning includes all of the following EXCEPT
a) mental imaging.
b) information processing.
c) trial and error.
d) thinking.
e) problem solving.

c) trial and error.

Kohler's chimp was able to get the bananas that were placed out of his reach by using
a) trial and error.
b) insight.
c) vicarious learning.
d) latent learning.
e) a cognitive map.

b) insight.

Mentally working through a problem until the sudden realization of the solution occurs is referred to as
a) spontaneous recovery.
b) trial-and-error learning.
c) shaping.
d) insight learning.
e) latent learning.

d) insight learning.

While changing her tire, Margarita bumped the hubcap, and all of the lug nuts fell into a storm sewer. After fretting for several minutes, she realized she could remove one lug nut from each of the other three tires to temporarily mount the spare until she could get to a service station. This is an example of
a) superstitious behavior.
b) insight learning.
c) spontaneous recovery.
d) shaping.
e) latent learning.

b) insight learning.

Caroline has an "Aha!" experience when solving a problem. Caroline most likely experienced which type of learning?
a) Latent learning
b) Insight learning
c) Observational learning
d) Operant conditioning
e) Classical conditioning

b) Insight learning

Learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and is not revealed in performance when it occurs is referred to as
a) insight learning.
b) classical conditioning.
c) spontaneous recovery.
d) latent learning.
e) shaping.

e) shaping.

Which researcher conducted investigations of latent learning with rats in mazes?
a) Garcia
b) Skinner
c) Thorndike
d) Tolman
e) Kohler

d) Tolman

Five-year-old Tim's parents love going to museums. They're especially fond of impressionist art. Tim protests every time they take him along to look at more paintings. He seems to have no interest in the art at all. One day, he brings home a painting that he made in kindergarten that shows definite impressionistic elements. This demonstrates
a) latent learning.
b) spontaneous recovery.
c) stimulus generalization.
d) stimulus discrimination.
e) insight learning.

a) latent learning.

Tolman proposed that rats can develop a mental representation of a maze called
a) a discriminative stimulus.
b) a cognitive map.
c) avoidance learning.
d) escape learning.
e) programmed instruction.

b) a cognitive map.

Observational learning is also referred to as
a) insight learning or latent learning.
b) operant conditioning.
c) vicarious learning or modeling.
d) classical conditioning.
e) intelligence.

c) vicarious learning or modeling.

"When in Rome, do as the Romans do" underscores the importance of what in learning?
a) Modeling
b) Latency
c) Insight
d) Shaping
e) Reinforcement

a) Modeling

According to Albert Bandura, the four processes essential to observational learning are attention, retention, reproduction, and
a) evaluation.
b) motivation.
c) memorization.
d) repetition.
e) reinforcement.

e) reinforcement.

Summarize the three types of cognitive learning.

Ans: One type of cognitive learning is insight learning. This is the type of learning that occurs when one mentally works through a problem until the correct answer suddenly becomes apparent. This is sometimes referred to as "Aha!" learning. Another type is latent learning. This occurs when there is learning, but the organism does not necessarily display the learning when it occurs. At some later point, when reinforcement for the response is introduced, the learning is demonstrated. Modeling (also called vicarious conditioning or observational learning) occurs when an organism learns by observing and imitating others.

A clear connection between a behavior and a reinforcement is referred to as
a) a contiguity.
b) a contingency.
c) a discriminative stimulus.
d) a secondary reinforcer.
e) a primary reinforcer.

b) a contingency.

The process by which two people in a relationship list the behaviors of the other that they would like changed, and then they agree to reinforce each other for making the changes is called
a) behavioral management.
b) the method of successive approximations.
c) reinforcement scheduling.
d) cognitive mapping.
e) contingency contracting.

e) contingency contracting.

A fourth-grade teacher wishes to reinforce positive behavior in his students. What first step should he take?
a) Track the effects of available reinforcers.
b) Wean the children from the reinforcers.
c) Explain the contingencies.
d) Identify the target behaviors.
e) Select and apply reinforcers.

d) Identify the target behaviors.

Donatella is using the guidelines for reinforcement with her son Giovanni. Donatella tells her son, "Giovanni, when you clean up all of your toys, you'll get a gold star on your chart." Which guideline is Donatella working with?
a) Rewarding the effort, not the outcome
b) Selecting a reinforcer
c) Applying the reinforcer
d) Tracking the frequency of desired behavior
e) Explaining the contingency

e) Explaining the contingency

Of the following parents giving praise to their child, who is using the most effective strategy?
a) Abdul, who tells his daughter, "You're a good girl," when she is polite to the neighbor
b) Barney, who tells his son, "I'm so proud of how well you prepared for your biology test."
c) Cornelius, who uses the phrase "You did a wonderful job" every time he praises his daughter
d) Darnell, who says to his son, "I'm proud of how you played tennis, but maybe next time you'll get more points."
e) Ed, who, after his daughter shows him her artwork, avoids making eye contact but says, "That's a great job you did."

b) Barney, who tells his son, "I'm so proud of how well you prepared for your biology test."

Although Hannah knows that praise strengthens desirable behavior in children, she is not sure what specific strategies she should use. Which of the following guidelines should Hannah follow?
a) Reward the outcome, not the effort.
b) Show a serious expression when giving praise to underscore the importance of the behavior.
c) Combine physical contact with verbal praise.
d) Give general praise for all accomplishments to build overall self-esteem.
e) Use the same words each time you praise to maintain consistency.

c) Combine physical contact with verbal praise.

List seven steps for using praise effectively with children.

Ans: First, adults should have good nonverbal communication by making eye contact with the child and smiling when giving praise. Second, physical contact should be combined with verbal praise. Third, adults should be very specific about the desired behavior that was accomplished, rather than speaking in vague terms. Fourth, adults should avoid empty flattery or indiscriminate praise. Fifth, praise the effort rather than the outcome. Sixth, adults should avoid using the same words every time praise is given; otherwise, the praise will lose its appeal. Finally, praise should not be followed by some related criticism (e.g., "You did well, but . . .").

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