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Ventral

refers to the belly or underside of a body or body part

Dorsal

refers to the back

Cranial

toward the head

Caudal

toward the tail

Posterior

rear of the body

Rostral

nose end of the head

Cephalic

pertaining to the head

Medial

toward midline

Lateral

away from midline

Proximal

nearest midline or nearest the beginning of a structure

Distal

farthest from midline or farthest from the beginning of a structure

Superficial

near the surface

Deep

away from the surface

Palmar

the caudal surface of the manus (front paw) including the carpus

Plantar

the caudal surface of the pes (rear paw) including the tarsus

Midsagittal Plane

the plan that divides the body into equal right and left halves

Sagittal Plane

the plane that divides the body into unequal right and left parts

Dorsal Plane

the plane that divides the body into dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts

Transverse Plane

the plane that divides the body into cranial and caudal parts

Etiology

the study of disease causes

Dental Arcade

the term used to describe how teeth are arranged in the mouth

Lingual

Towards the tongue

Buccal

toward the inside of the cheek

Occlusal

Chewing surface of the posterior teeth

Thoracic

of or relating to the chest or thorax

Abdomen

the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis

Recumbent

lying down

Adduction

movement toward the midline

Abduction

movement away from midline

Flexion

closure of a joint angle, or reduction of the angle between two bones

Extension

straightening of a joint or an increase in the angle between two bones

Supination

the act of rotating the limb or body part so that the palmar surface is turned upward

Pronation

the act of rotating the limb or body part so that the palmar surface is turned downward

Genetic

a term used to denote something that pertains to genes or heredity

Congenital

which denotes something that is present at birth

Exocrine

denoting a gland that secretes outwardly through ducts

Endocrine

any of the glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream

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