Ch. 5 - Medical Terminology

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Chapter 5 - Respiratory System Book: Exploring Medical Language 8th Edition (ISBN: 9780323073080)

Lined with mucous membrane and fine hairs; it acts as a filter to moisten and warm the entering air

Nose

Partition separating the right and left nasal cavities

Nasal septum

Air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavaties

Paranasal sinuses

Serves as a food and air passageway. Air enters from the nasal cavities and passes through the pharynx to the larynx. Food enters the pharynx from the mouth and passes into the esophagus (also called the throat)

Pharynx

Lymphoid tissue located behind the nasal cavity

Adenoids

Lymphoid tissue located behind the mouth

Tonsils

Location of the vocal cords. Air enters from the pharynx (also called the voice box)

Larynx

Flap of cartilage that automatically covers the opening of and keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing

Epiglottis

Passageway for air to the bronchi (also called the windpipe)

Trachea

One of two branches from the trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides and subdivides. The branchings resemble a tree; therefore, they are referred to as a bronchial tree)

Bronchus (pl. bronchi)

Smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree

Bronchioles

Air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged through the alveolar walls and the capillaries

Alveolus (pl. alveoli)

Two spongelike organs in the thoracic cavity. The right lung consists of 3 lobes, and the left lung has 2 lobes

Lungs

Double-folded serous membrane covering each lung and lining the thoracic cavity with a small space between, called the pleural cavity, which contains serous fluid

Pleura

Muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. It aids in the breathing process by contracting and pulling air in, then relaxing and pushing air out.

Diaphragm

Space between the lungs. It contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, great blood vessels, and other structures.

Mediastinum

adenoid/o

adenoids

alveol/o

alveolus

bronchi/o

bronchus

bronch/o

bronchus

diaphragmat/o

diaphragm

phren/o

diaphragm

epiglott

epiglottis

laryng/o

larynx

lob/o

lobe

nas/o

nose

rhin/o

nose

pharyng/o

pharynx

pleur/o

pleura

pneum/o

lung, air

pneumat/o

lung, air

pneumon/o

lung, air

pulmon/o

lung

sept/o

septum (wall off, fence)

sinus/o

sinus

thorac/o

thorax (chest)

tonsill/o

tonsil

trache/o

trachea

atel/o

imperfect, incomplete

capn/o

carbon dioxide

hem/o

blood

hemat/o

blood

muc/o

mucus

orth/o

straight

ox/i, ox/o

oxygen

phon/o

sound, voice

somn/o

sleep

spir/o

breathe, breathing

a-, an-

absence of, without

endo-

wthin

eu-

normal, good

pan-

all, total

poly-

many, much

tachy-

fast, rapid

-algia

pain

-ar

pertaining to

-ary

pertaining to

-eal

pertaining to

-cele

hernia or protrusion

-centesis

surgical puncture to aspirate fluid (with a sterile needle)

-ectasis

stretching out, dilatation, expansion

-emia

blood condition

-graphy

process of recording, radiographic imaging

-meter

instrument used to measure

-metry

measurement

-pexy

surgical fixation, suspension

-pnea

breathing

-rrhagia

rapid flow of blood

-scope

instrument used for visual examination

-scopic

pertaining to visual examination

-scopy

visual examination

-spasm

sudden, involuntary muscle contraction (spasmodic contraction)

-stenosis

constriction or narrowing

-stomy

creation of an artificial opening

-thorax

chest

-tomy

cut into or incision

inflammation of the adenoids

adenoiditis

inflammation of the alveolus

alveolitis

incomplete expansion (of the lung or portion of the lung)

atelectasis

dilation of the bronchi

bronchiectasis

inflammation of the bronchi

bronchitis

cancerous tumor originating in a bronchus

bronchogenic carcinoma

diseased state of the bronchi and lungs (usually caused by infection)

bronchopneumonia

hernia of the diaphragm

diaphragmatocele

inflammation of the epiglottis

epiglottitis

blood in the chest (pleural space)

hemothorax

inflammation of the larynx

laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi (the acute form is called croup)

laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)

pertaining to the lobe(s); diseased state of the lung (infection of one or more lobes of the lung)

lobar pneumonia

inflammation of the nose and pharynx

nasopharyngitis

inflammation of all sinuses

pansinusitis

inflammation of the pharynx

pharyngitis

inflammation of the pleura (also called pleurisy)

pleuritis

hernia of the lung (lung tissue protrudes through an opening in the chest)

pneumatocele

abnormal condition of dust in the lungs

pneumoconiosis

diseased state of the lung (the infection and inflammation are caused by bacteria such as Pneumococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus; viruses; and fungi)

pneumonia

inflammation of the lung

pneumonitis

air in the chest (pleural space), which causes collapse of the lung (often a result of an open chest wound)

pneumothorax

pertaining to (in) the lung, new growth (tumor)

pulmonary neoplasm

pus in the chest (pleural space) (also called empyema)

pyothorax

inflammation of the (mucous membranes) nose

rhinitis

abnormal condition of fungus in the nose

rhinomycosis

rapid flow of blood from the nose (also called epistaxis)

rhinorrhagia

pain in the chest

thoracalgia

inflammation of the tonsils

tonsillitis

inflammation of the trachea

tracheitis

narrowing of the trachea

tracheostenosis

respiratory failure as a result of disease or injury. symptoms include dyspea, tachypnea, and cyanosis

acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath, which is caused by constriction of airways that is reversible between attacks

asthma

a progressive lung disease that restricts air flow, which makes breathing difficult. chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the two main components of COPD, but it may also be caused by chronic asthmatic bronchitis. most COPD is a result of cigarette smoking.

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

fungal disease affecting the lungs and sometimes other organs of the body (also called valley fever or cocci)

coccidioidomycosis

serious cardiac disease associated with chronic lung disorders, such as emphysema

cor pulmonale

condition resulting from acute obstruction of the larynx, characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, and stridor. it may be caused by viral or bacterial infection, allergy, or foreign body. occurs mainly in children.

croup

hereditary disorder of the exocrine glands characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract, pancreatic deficiency, and other symptoms

cystic fibrosis (CF)

one part of the nasal cavity is smaller because of malformation or injury of the nasal septum

deviated septum

stretching of lung tissue caused by the alveoli becoming distended and losing elasticity

emphysema

nosebleed (synonymous wth rhinorrhagia)

epistaxis

highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus (also called flu)

influenza

a lobar pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella Pneumophila

Legionnaire disease

repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to absence of breathing; can produce daytime drowsiness and elevated blood pressure

obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop (also called whooping cough)

pertussis

fluid in the pleural space caused by a disease process or trauma

pleural effusion

fluid accumulation in the alveoli and bronchioles

pulmonary edema

matter foreign to the circulation, carried to the pulmonary artery and its branches, where it blocks circulation to the lungs and can be fatal if of sufficient size or number. blood clots broken loose from the deep veins of the lower extremeties are the most common source of emboli

pulmonary embolism (PE)

an infectious disease, caused by an acid-fast bacillus, most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles and usually affecting the lungs

tuberculosis (TB)

infection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, or larynx (commonly called a cold)

upper respiratory infection (URI)

excision of the adenoids

adenoidectomy

surgical instrument used to cut the adenoids

adenotome

surgical repair of a bronchus

bronchoplasty

excision of the larynx

laryngectomy

surgical repair of the larynx

laryngoplasty

creation of an artificial opening into the larynx

laryngostomy

incision of the larynx and trachea

laryngotracheotomy

excision of a lobe (of the lung)

lobectomy

surgical fixation of the pleura

pleuroplexy

incision of lung and bronchus

pneumobronchotomy

excision of a lung

pneumonectomy

surgical repair of the nose

rhinoplasty

surgical repair of the (nasal) septum

septoplasty

incision into the (nasal) septum

septotomy

incision of a sinus

sinusotomy

surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity (also called thoracentasis)

thoracocentesis

incision into the chest cavity

thoracotomy

excision of the tonsils

tonsillectomy

surgical repair of the trachea

tracheoplasty

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