Medical Terminology Chp. 7

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Medical Terminology Chp. 7 Respiratory System

bronch/o bronchi/o

bronchial tube, bronchus

cyan/o

combining form for blue

laryng/o

Of or pertaining to the larynx, the lower throat cavity where the voice box is

ox/i ox/o ox/y

combining forms for oxygen

pharyng/o

pharynx, throat

phon/o

voice or sound

pleur/o

pleura (membrane surrounding lungs and adjacent to chest wall)

-pnea

breath, breathing

pneum/o, pneumon/o, pneu-

lung, pertaining to the lungs, air

pulm/o pulmon/o

lungs (pneum/o sometimes means air or gas)

somn/o

combining form for sleep

spir/o

breathe, breathing

tachy-

fast, rapid

thorac/o -thorax

chest or thorax, thoracic part of spine

trache/o

trachea; windpipe

anoxia

deprivation of (state of being without) oxygen

antrhacosis

black lesions made of pulmonary macrophages with ingested coal particles. seen in coal workers, smokers and dwellers of urban polluted areas.

antitussive

any medicine used to suppress or relieve coughing

aphonia

a disorder of the vocal organs that results in the loss of voice

apnea

temporary cessation of breathing

asbestosis

lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos particles

asphyxia

a condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis

asphyxiation

the condition of being derprived of oxygen (as by having breathing stopped)

aspiration pneumonia

inflammation of the lungs caused by inhaling or choking on vomitus

asthma

a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing

atelectasis

Collapsed lung; incomplete expansion of alveoli

bradypnea

abnormally slow rate of respiration usually of less than 10 breaths per minute

bronchodilator

a drug that relaxes and dilates the bronchial passageways and improves the passages of air into the lungs

bronchorrhea

an excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi

bronchoscopy

use of a flexible endoscope, called a bronchoscope, to examine the airways

bronchospasm

a spasm of the bronchi that makes exhalation difficult and noisy

cheyne-stokes respiration

pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea

croup

an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough

cystic fibrosis

a genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus

diphtheria

an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract

dysphonia

difficulty producing speech sounds, usually due to hoarseness

dyspnea

difficult or labored respiration

emphysema

disease in which the tissues of the lungs lose elasticity, making breathing very difficult

empyema

a collection of pus in a body cavity (especially in the lung cavity)

endotracheal intubation

the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway

epistaxis

bleeding from the nose

hemoptysis

coughing up blood

hemothorax

accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest)

hypercapnia

the presence of an abnormally high level of carbon dioxide in the circulating blood

hyperpnea

energetic (deep and rapid) respiration that occurs normally after exercise or abnormally with fever or various disorders

hypopnea

abnormally slow or shallow respirations

hypoxemia

deficient amount of oxygen in the blood

hypoxia

a very strong drive resulting from a deficiency of available oxygen in the blood and bodily tissues (short of anoxia)

laryngectomy

surgical removal of part or all of the larynx (usually to treat cancer of the larynx)

laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx

laryngoplegia

paralysis of the vocal cords and larynx

laryngoscopy

visual examination of the larynx to detect tumors, foreign bodies, nerve or structural injury, or other abnormalities

mediastinum

the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus

nebulizer

pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which is then inhaled by the patient via a face mask or mouthpiece

otolaryngologist

a physician with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, throat, and related structures of the head and neck; also known as an ENT

pertussis

whooping cough; highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by Bordetella pertussis

pharyngitis

Inflammation of the pharynx; also known as a sore throat.

pharyngoplasty

surgical repair of the pharynx

pleurectomy

surgical removal of part of the pleura

pleurisy

inflammation of the pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath

pleurodynia

pain in the pleura or in the side that occurs in relation to breathing movements

pneumoconiosis

abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis

pneumonectomy

surgical removal of a lung (usually to treat lung cancer)

pneumothorax

air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall

polysomnography

monitoring and recording of normal and abnormal activity during sleep to diagnose sleep disorders

pulmonologist

A physician who specializes in the diseases and disorders of the lungs and respiratory system

pulse oximeter

a device that measures the oxygen saturation of arterial blood by reference to light wave lengths

pyothorax

Pus in the chest cavity

sinusitis

inflammation of the sinuses

tachypnea

an abnormally rapid rate of respiration, usually >20 breaths per minute

thoracentesis

surgical puncture of the thoracic cavity, usually using a needle, to remove fluids

thoracostomy

the surgical creation of an opening into the chest cavity to establish drainage of empyema

tracheostomy

surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck

tracheotomy

an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage

tuberculosis

An infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis which affects the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body.

upper respiratory tract consists of

the nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea

lower respiratory tract consists of

the bronchial tree and lungs. These structures are located within, and protected by, the thoracic cavity which is also known as the rib cage

nasal cavity

interior portion of the nose

nasal septum

is a wall of cartilage that divides the nose into two equal sections. A septum is a wall that separates two chambers

Cilia

thin hairs located just inside the nostrils, filter incoming air to remove debris

Mucous membranes

are the specialized tissues that line the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems

Mucus

which is secreted by the mucous membranes, protects and lubricates these tissues. In the
nose mucus helps to moisten, warm, and filter the air as it enters. Notice the different spellings; however, they have the same pronunciation. Mucous is the name of
the tissue; mucus is the secretion that flows from the tissue.

olfactory receptors

are nerve endings that act as the receptors for the sense of smell. They are also important to the sense of taste. These receptors are located in the mucous membrane in the
upper part of the nasal cavity

tonsils

form a protective circle of lymphatic tissue
around the entrance to the respiratory system

paranasal sinuses

air-filled cavities lined with mucous membrane, are located in the bones of the skull. These sinuses are connected to the nasal cavity via short ducts (para- means near, nas means nose, and -al means pertaining to).

pharynx

which is commonly known as the throat, receives the air after it passes through the nose. The pharynx is made up of three divisions

frontal sinuses

located in the frontal bone just above the eyebrows. An infection here can cause severe
pain in this area.

sphenoid sinuses

which are located in the sphenoid bone, are close to the optic nerves and an
infection here can damage vision

maxillary sinuses

which are the largest of the paranasal sinuses, are located in the maxillary bones. An infection in these sinuses can cause pain in the
posterior maxillary teeth

ethmoid sinuses

which are located in the ethmoid bones, are irregularly shaped air cells that are separated
from the orbital (eye) cavity by only a thin layer of bone

epiglottis

which
is a lid-like structure located at the base of the tongue,
swings downward and closes off the laryngopharynx so
that food does not enter the trachea and the lungs.

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