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Which of the following is true?

Ribosomes may be found scattered in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and are involved in protein synthesis

Which of the following organelles has the function of STORAGE, ALTERATION, and PACKAGING of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes?

Golgi Apparatus

Which of the following organelles is NOT surrounded by a membrane?

Ribosome

What is the function of the nucleus?

It produces rRNA and assembles ribosome subunits

The smallest living unit within the human body is?

The Cell

Which of the following terms is NOT used to define the structure that separates the contents of a human cell from its surrounding medium?

Cell Wall

The plasma membrane is composed of?

a bilayer of phospholipids

Which of the following is NOT a function of membrane proteins?

storage of cellular nutrients

The TAILS of a phospholipid molecule are?

hydrophobic

Membrane proteins perform which of the following functions?

All of the answers are correct

Microfilaments do what?

anchor the cytoskeleton to integral proteins of the cell membrane

Tublin is a

Protein that assembles into filamentous tubes (Microtubules)

Compared to the extracellular fluid, cytosol contains?

a HIGHER concentration of potassium ions.

Most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the?

mitochondria

Synthesis of lipids and glycogen takes place at the?

SMOOTH Endoplasmic Reticulum

Which of the following consists of a network of intracellular membranes with attached ribosomes?

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Organelles that break down fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide are?

Peroxisomes

When activated, lysosomes function in?

Digestion of foreign material

Which form of endoplasmic reticulum modifies and packages newly synthesized protein?

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Match the organelles (1-4) with the correct description (5-8)
1. Mitochondrion
2. centriole
3. Endoplasmic Reticulum
4. cytosol
5. Intracellular transport
6. liquid in cell
7. Manufactures cell energy
8. Separates chromosomes during mitosis

1&7, 2&8, 3&5, 4&6

Tublin is to microtubules as actin is to?

Microfilaments

Peroxisomes?

All of the answers are correct

Which organelle is most prominent in cells that make large amounts of protein?

Nucleolus

If an animal cell lacked centrioles, it would not be able to?

Form the Mitotic Spindle

Each of the following is a function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, except?

Modification of protein

The following is a list of the steps involved in the process of secretion by the Golgi apparatus. Put them in the order that they occur.
1. Material moves from cistern to cisterna by means of transfer vesicles.
2. Exocytosis.
3. Products from RER are packaged into transport vesicles.
4. Secretory vesicles are formed at the maturing face.
5. Vesicles arrive at the forming face.
6. Enzymes modify arriving proteins and glycoproteins.

3, 5, 6, 1, 4, 2

Some cells contain large numbers of mitochondria while others have relatively few or none. This suggests that?

cells with large numbers of mitochondria have a high energy demand.

Receptor Molecules on the surface of cells bind specific molecules called, in general, _______?

Ligands

The organelles and the watery component of the cell together is called?

cytoplasm

The water component of the cytoplasm is called?

Cytosol

Components of the cytoskeleton may include all of the following, except?

Microsomes.

Many protein in the cytosol are _________ that accelerates metabolic reactions.

enzymes

Most of a cell's DNA is located in its?

Nucleus

The control center for cellular operations is the?

Nucleus

The functional units of DNA that contain the instructions for making one or more proteins are?

genes

The nucleus is surrounded by the ______________?

Nuclear Envelope

In cells that are not dividing, chromosomes uncoil to form a tangle of fine fibers known as____________?

Chromatin

________ refers to identifying an individual on the basis of repetitive nucleotide sequences in his or her DNA.

DNA fingerprinting

The process of protein formation directed by mRNA is called?

Translation

The process of forming mRNA is called?

Transcription

Thymine is replaced by which nitrogen base in RNA?

Uracil

The molecule that brings the proper amino acid into place at the ribosome for the elongation of a new protein is called?

tRNA

Put the following steps of protein synthesis in correct order of occurrence.
1. mRNA is produced in nucleus
2. ribosome moves along mRNA
3. DNA uncoils for transcription
4. Polypeptide is produced
5. tRNA brings amino acids to ribosome
6. mRNA moves to the ribosome.

3, 1, 6, 2, 5, 4

The duplication of DNA is called _______, The copying of DNA to mRNA is called _______, And the reading of the mRNA by the cell to make a protein is called __________.

Replication, Transcription, Translation

A gene is a set of specific instructions that?

Indicates the sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule.

Transfer of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytosol occurs through ________.

Nuclear Pores

The movement of oxygen from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is an example of?

diffusion

Water molecules and small ions enter a cell through?

Channels formed by integral proteins

Hemolysis may occur when a blood cell is placed into?

Hypotonic Solution

The skin swells and puckers during a long bath. This suggests that bath water is a(n) ______ fluid.

Hypotonic

Red blood cell shrinkage is to ______ as cell bursting is to _____.

Crenation, Hemolysis

The process by which molecules such as glucose are moved into cells along their concentration gradient with the help of membrane-bound carrier protein is called?

Facilitated diffusion

Facilitated diffusion differs from ordinary diffusion in that?

The rate of molecular movement is limited by the number of available carrier molecules

All of the following membrane transport mechanisms are passive processes, except?

Vesicular transport

A process that requires cellular energy to move a substance against its concentration gradient is called?

Active Transport

The intake of small membrane vesicles from the extracellular fluid is called?

Endocytosis

Two types of vesicular transport include?

Endocytosis ad exocytosis

Endocytosis is

a method of transporting substances into the cell

A defense cell engulfing a bacterium illustrates

Phagocytosis

In order to maintain cellular homeostasis, an exchange pump ejects ______ ions from the cell and imports _____ ions.

Sodium, Potassium

The principal cations in our body fluid are _______ and ________.

Sodium, Potassium

Whenever positive and negative ions have been separated, a(n) ______ will be produced.

Potential Difference

When is DNA replicated?

Interphase

The stage in a cells life in which the cell performs its normal functions and prepares for division is called?

interphase

a cell duplicated its chromosomes during the _______ phase.

S

During Mitosis, chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes during

Anaphase

Mitosis is to somatic cells as meiosis is to

Reproductive cells.

During this phase of cell division, the chromosomes uncoil, the nuclear membrane forms, and cytokinesis occurs.

Telophase

During Mitosis, two daughter cells form each of which has

the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.

The correct order of phases in cell division is?

Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

If a cell has 18 chromosomes and undergoes mitosis how many chromosomes would each daughter cell have?

18

Nuclear division of somatic cells is known as?

mitosis

The genetically programmed death of cells is called

apoptosis

An alternate term for tumor is?

Neoplasm

________ cells are all of the cells of the body except the reproductive cells (sperm and oocytes)

Somatic

The endoplasmic reticulum is an example of a(n) ______ organelle

Membranous

the extracellular fluid in most tissues is called the ______ fluid.

Interstitial

_________ are responsible for identifying and digesting damaged or denatured proteins.

Proteasomes

The ______ typically consists of five or six flattened membranous discs called cisternae.

Golgi Apparatus

Histones are found in?

Nucleosomes

Cancer cells

May exhibit metastasis

A(n) _______ is a mutant of a regulatory gene that causes cancer.

Oncogene

The process by which cells become specialized is called_______ ?

differentiation

What are the building blocks of all plants and animals?

Cells

what do cells do?

-Respond to the environment
-Maintain homeostasis at the cellular level
-Modify structure and function over time

What is the study of the structure and function of cells?

Cytology

Sex cells (germ cells)

-Reproductive cells
-male sperm
-female oocytes (eggs)

Somatic cells

all body cells with the exception of sex cells.

The cell has on outer boundary called?

The cell membrane or plasma membrane

Functions of the cell membrane

regulates exchange with environment:
-Ions and nutrients enter
-waste and cellular products released
Monitors the environment:
-Extracellular fluid composition
-Chemical signals
Structural support
-Anchors calls and tissues

The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with?

Proteins, Lipids, and Carbohydrates

Phospholipid Bilayer contains

Hydrophilic heads- toward watery environment, both sides

Hydrophobic fatty-acid tails- Inside membrane

-Barrier to ions and water soluble compounds

Integral Proteins

Cannot be removed without causing harm to the membrane.
- go thru

Peripheral Proteins

- Bound to the inter or outer surface of the membrane

Anchoring Proteins

- Bind the cell membrane to other structures
cytoskeleton inside the cell
Other cells outside the cell

Recognition proteins (identifiers)

-label cells normal or abnormal
-many are glycoproteins

Enzymes

Catalyze reactions in intracellular or extracellular fluid

Receptor Proteins

-Receptive to extracellular molecules called ligands (ions, hormones)
-An example is the binding of insulin to cells and the subsequent absorption of glucose into the cell
- Receptor proteins are VERY specific

Carrier Proteins

Transport specific solutes through membrane

Channels

Regulate waterflow and solutes through membrane

Membrane Carbohydrates include

Proteoglycans, Glycoproteins, and Glycolipids:
-extend outside cell membrane
-Form sticky "sugar coat" (Glycocalyx)

Functions of Glycocalyx

Lubrication and protection
Anchoring and Location
Specificity in binding (receptors)
Recognition (immune response)
Functions in bloodtype

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