PDHPE HSC Core 2 Knowledge

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Carbohydrates

are an ideal source of energy for the body and are the main nutrient which fuels exercise of a moderate to high intensity.

Carbohydrates

are an ideal source of energy for the body and are the main nutrient which fuels exercise of a moderate to high intensity.

Fats

are the main energy source for long and low-to-moderate exercise. They are broken down to provide energy for activity into glycerol and free fatty acids.

Proteins

are not normally used for energy or production of ATP

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

is made up of a large molecule called adenosine molecule and three smaller molecules called phosphates. It is the energy source used in muscle contraction.

1 to 2 seconds

is the amount of activity time that the small amount of stored ATP provides the body.

Resynthesis

is the term used to describe the processes which the body uses to reproduce more ATP.

Alactacid system (ATP/PC)

is an anaerobic energy system which uses creatine phosphate as a fuel.

10 to 13 seconds

is the approximate time the ATP/PC system lasts, i.e. the time creatine phosphate stores last in the body.

By products

are the 'leftover' products that remain in the body following ATP resynthesis. They vary depending on the energy system that has been used.

30 seconds to 2 minutes

is the time the alactacid energy system takes to recover. There are no by products of this system.

Lactic acid system

is also an anaerobic energy system. Its major source of fuel is carbohydrates in the form of blood glucose or glycogen.

1 minute to 3 minutes

is the length of time the lactic acid energy system will last, but this depends on the intensity of the activity. The lactic acid system produces energy for short, high intensity bursts of activity.

Fatigue

is the result of the by product of the lactic acid energy system.

Lactic acid

results from the production of ATP using anerobic glycolysis i'e breaking down glycogen without oxygen.

Pyruvic acid

is the by product of glycolysys (the breakdown of stored glycogen). If glycolysis is done without oxygen the by product is lactic acid. If glycolysis is done with oxygen present, the by products are hydrogen and water.

20 minutes to 2 hours

is the time the lactic acid energy system takes to recover and remove lactic acid from the blood.

Aerobic energy system

can supply energy to the body from 2 to 3 minutes for a few hours. It is used primarily during endurance exercise.

Glucose and free fatty acids

are the primary fuels of the aerobic energy system.

Low intensity (below 50% maximum heart rate)

During this type of exercise, there is enough stored fat to provide energy for hours or even days.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O)

are the by products of the aerobic energy system. The system will fatigue when the stores of carbohydrates and fats are exhausted.

Types of aerobic training

Fartlek, aerobic, continuous, interval and circuit. The main objective of any of these training methods is to make the athlete's body more efficient at using oxygen.

Interval training

involves periods of structured work interspersed with rest periods in a set pattern.

Fartlek training

involves alternating bursts of high intensity activity while still maintaining the longer slower style of training servicing both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems.

Circuit training

is a type of interval training where the athlete selects different exercises or stations to use for a set interval of time.

Continuous training

involves training with no rest. It should be taken at an intensity where the heart rate will be in the aerobic training zone for at least 20 minutes.

Flexibility

refers to the range of motion of a joint or group of joints.

Static stretching

is a safe form of stretching which involves holding that position for a period of 15 to 30 seconds.

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)

is a technique of static stretching and isometric stretching and works with the muscle to get used to the new length of the muscle.

Ballistic stretching

is a form of dynamic stretching involving movement and uses the movement of the body to force it further than its normal range of motion.

Dynamic stretching

involves actively moving parts of the body being stretched increasing the length of the muscle.

Strength training

also called resistance training, muscles will contract in different ways depending on the type of training and the method used. A muscle will either shorten or lengthen when undergoing a resistance program.

Types of muscle contractions

include isometric, isotonic and isokinetic contractions.

Principles of training

are progressive overload, specificity, variety, warm up and cool down, reversibility and training thresholds.

Progressive overload

involves the athlete undertaking a training load exceeding what the body is normally accustomed to and is forced to operate beyond its normal range.

Specificity

is exercise aimed at specific or designated components of fitness, muscle groups and or energy systems used in the activity.

Reversibility

occurs if training stops. Any gains made from training will be lost at approximately one third of the rate of acquisition.

The principle of variety

is important to maintain motivation and reduces boredom in the athlete.

Training thresholds

are indicators that the athlete is working at the right intensity.

Target heart rate zone

(training zone) is between 60 to 80% of maximum heart rate.

Aerobic training threshold

is 60% of maximum heart rate.

Aerobic threshold

is 80% of maximum heart rate.

Anaerobic threshold

is the point where the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) occurs. As a result, fatigue starts to occur for the lactic acid energy system.

Warm-up

prepares the body for activity and minimise injury.

Cool down

takes the strain off the heart and allows the blood to be redistributed from where it may have pooled in the extremities of the body, such as the feet. It helps disperse lactic acid accumulation.

Physiological adaptations

occur as a result of training include lower resting heart rate, increased stroke volume and increased cardiac output. Other changes include increased oxygen uptake, stable or unchanged lung capacity, increased haemoglobin content, increased hypertrophy in the muscles trained, and increase in slow or fast twitch muscle fibres depending on type of training program undertaken.

Stroke volume

is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart per beat.

Cardiac output (CO)

is stroke volume (SV) x heart rate (HR).

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