Protozoan that causes african sleeping sickness, obtain a bite from a tstse fly, causes fever, rash, swelling of face and hands.
Gram positive spore form bacteria leaving black lesions on skin.
Coccus type, methicllin resistant, causes pimples and boils on skin.
Spirillium, causing syphillius, transmission from sexual contact and mother to fetus, starts with a single pore and then spreads to organs, leading to paralysis and blindness.
red, 4X, 40 total
yellow, 10X, 100 total
blue, 40X, 400 total
white, 100X, 1000 total
the distance between the center of the lens.
the distance between the specimen and the lens.
Depth of focus
the thickness of the specimen that may be seen at one time.
Field of view
the circle of light that one sees in the microscope.
the centering of the field.
allows the viewer to see objects of comparable size but still be able to recognize that they are two ojects rather than one.
Mathematical expression of the solid cone of light delivered to the specimen by the condenser.
increase in magnification
size of the object, need for light, detail observed.
decrease in magnification
focal lengh, working distance, field of view and depth of focus.
regulates the amount of light being directed at the stage.
coarse adjustment knob
largest knob, allowing you to raise and lower the stage rapidly.
fine adjustment knob
smaller knob, allowing you to raise the stage slowly.
test for small carbs and some disaccharides (glucose) positive = red, orange & brown, negative = blue.
test for presence of polysaccharides (starch) positive = blue/black, negative = reddish orange
test for presence of lipids. postive = bright orange, negative = dark red.
test for presence of proteins. positive = violet purple, negative = clear blue.
digestion in the small intestines.
digestion in the stomach.
simple sugar or larger molecule composed larger sugar molecules.
hydophobic molecules (hates water) that consist of mainly hydrogen and carbon, linked by nonpolar covalent bonds.
chains of amino acids that serve as structual components of bone, muscle, hair or enzymes, speeding up reactions.
used for information processing and stores the hereditary material know as DNA.
non membrane bound structure and site for RNA synthesis.
double membrane surrounding the nucleus.
large protein complexes that cross the nuclear envelope and allow for transport of water soluble molecules across the nuclear envelope.
sas that manufacture, process and transport chemical compounds for use inside and outside the cell.
site for synthesis of lipids and steriods, metabolism of carbohydrates, regulation of calcium concentration.
studded with protein manufacturing ribsomes giving it a rough appearance. Ribosomes bind once they begin to synthesize a protein destined for sorting.
powerhouse of cell, coverts nutrients and oxygen to energy.
encloses the contents of the cell and regulates the passage of molecules in and out of cell.
a tough outer layer that surrounds some types of cells. (plants, bacteria, fungi, algae and some archaea)
break down cellular waste products and debris from outside the cell into simple compounds, which are transfered to the cytoplasm as new cell building materials.
Self replicating organelles made up of nine bundles of microtubles. Found only in animal cells and help in organizing cell division.
shipping department for cells chemical products. Modifies the proteins and fats built in the ER and prepares them for export to the outside of the cell.
contents of the cell except for nucleus.
all cells contain these and are organelles composed of about 60% RNA and 40% protein.
allowing some substances to move easily while completely excluding others. ability to cross depends on size, polarity (hyrdophobic, hydrophillic) and charge.
without the cell needing to expand any energy to make them happen.
require energy from cells reserves to power them.
going from a region of lower concentration to higher concentration.
equal distribution of concentration, there is no net change.
"Plasmolyzed" - loss of water and cells shrink.
"Flaccid" - the concentration of a solute in a solution is equal to the solute in the cells.
"Turgid" - more water enters the cell than leaves it, cells are overwhelmed with water. think of "bursting plants".
process of plasmolysis. Is the contraction of a cell after exposure to a hypertonic solution, due to the loss of water through osmosis.
Rate of diffusion experiment where lugol's Iodine and phenolphthalein were used. Lugol's iodine is a rust colored solution that turns purplish black in the presence of _______. Phenolphthalein is a clear solution that turns pink in presence of alkaline substances.
Molarity weight = 158
Molarity weight = 320
Plasmolysis in plant cells experiment where we observed leafs with different concentrations. The leaf with ___% NaCl solution lost water causing it to become plasmolyzed.
Cells are made up to ____% to ____% of water.
movement of solute molecule to a region of higher concentration to lower concentration.
diffusion of water across the membrane.
molecules that can easily pass
hydrophobic molecules (oil solubles), nonpolar substances like benzene, small uncharged particles.
molecules that cannot pass easily
large, uncharged molecules like sucrose, polar molecules, ions like H+ and Na+
The iodine entered the sac, causing it to turn from white to a blue/black. But the water remained the color of iodine (pink) because starch was not able to cross out from the dialysis bag.
What was the result of the starch diffusion experiment where we used iodine to test for the dialysis of starch through the membrane sac?
Vacuolar & plasma membrane
2 selectively permable membranes that are present within the elodea cells in the plasmolysis process.
proteins that function as biological catalysts, can never be used up or altered in the reaction.
lowers the amount of energy necessary for a chemical reaction to proceed.
energy required for a chemical reaction.
material with which the catalysts reacts.
substate molecules combine with enzyme molecules for form a temporary complex.
formed and the enzyme molecule is released, unchanged.
how discriminating the enzyme is in catalyzing different substrates.
the need for a metallic ion for enzyme activity.
hydrogen-ion based concentration of the environment.
chemicals that shut off enzyme activity.
competes for a position at the active site. It can be reversed if the concentration of substrate is raised.
inhibitor binds to a part of the enzyme that is not apart of the active site. It changes the nature of the enzyme so that its catalytic properties are lost. Either blocks the path or causes a change in protein.
2 ways to measure enzyme activity
rate of disappearance of substrate, rate of appearance of product.
enzyme used for enzyme specificity experiment.