Psychology Midterm

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parasympathetic nervous system

The branch of the autonomic nervous system that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands is called the ________.

retrieval cue

Someone asks you to name the twenty-second president of the United States, but you can't remember. To aid your memory, the person then tells you that the president's name is the same as that of a large city on Lake Erie. Upon hearing the hint, you instantly realize that Grover Cleveland is the answer. In this situation, the hint acted as a(n) ________.

operant conditioning

A child learns that whenever he eats all of his dinner he gets a cookie for dessert. This type of learning is BEST explained by ________.

analytical, creative, and practical

What three types of intelligence constitute Sternberg's Triarchic theory of intelligence

GABA

The effect of alcohol is to stimulate the release of ________, which causes the general inhibition of the nervous system associated with getting drunk

Thorndike's Law of Effect

"If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated. If a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated."This is a statement of ________.

longitudinal design

The local health department of a small town has hired a research firm to study the development of cancer in residents in the town due to a suspected cancer-causing agent and environmental pollution. The researcher will compare data on participants at age 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, etc. to see if there are increasing rates of cancer in the town. This type of research study is called a ________.

primary tastes

bitter, salty, sour, sweet, umami

scientific method

________ is a system used for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data

habituation

When you first put your hat on, you can feel it quite easily, but after a while, you forget that you are wearing a hat at all-the sensation is gone. What happens?

identity versus role confusion

Brad is 18 and is looking into career options. He is currently deciding whether he wants to become a gourmet chef or a race car driver. Brad is at what stage of Erik Erikson's psychosocial development?

fixed ratio

Al must build 25 radios before he receives $20. What schedule of reinforcement is being used?

echoic sensory memory

Suzy looks up from her lunch, realizing that Jacques has just said something to her. What was it? Oh, yes, he has just asked her if she wants to go to the movies. Suzy's ability to retrieve what Jacques said is due to her ________

fuzzy with unclear boundaries

Compared to formal concepts learned in science and math, natural concepts tend to be ________.

Ashley and Mary-Kate are twins who are genetically identical. What type of twins are they?

Ashley and Mary-Kate are twins who are genetically identical. What type of twins are they?

relativity hypothesis

one's language determines the pattern of one's thinking and view of the world

tip of tongue effect

When the sound of the word is the aspect that cannot be retrieved, leaving only the feeling of knowing the word without the ability to pronounce it, this is known as _______

absolute threshold

The point at which a person can detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is presented is called the ________.

primary

A ________ reinforcer is any reward that satisfies a basic, biological need, such a hunger, thirst, or touch.

human development

The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception to death is called ________.

opponent-process

If you stare for 30 seconds at a red object and then look at a blank sheet of white paper, you will see a greenish image of the object. This phenomenon BEST supports the ________ theory of color vision.

Proactive interference

________ is the tendency for older or previously learned material to interfere with the retrieval of newer, more recently learned material.

insight learning

You need to remove a broken light bulb from a lamp. Without a pair of gloves, you are likely to cut yourself on the jagged glass. Suddenly, it occurs to you that you can use a cut potato to remove the light bulb from the socket. You have just demonstrated ________.

reliable

Psychological tests that yield relatively consistent results are said to be ________.

Long-term memory

semantic networks or nodes of related information spreading out from a central piece of knowledge

working

Short-term memory is another name for ________ memory.

blue

The shortest wavelengths that we can see are experienced as ________ colors.

egocentrism

What term is used to describe a child's inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes except his or her own?

postconventional moralit

When faced with a conflict between law and conscience, Liz follows her conscience despite the personal risk. This would be characteristic of ________.

lacebo effect

Sandy Sue was participating in an experiment in which she was given a pill that was supposed to cause her to get drowsy. Five minutes after taking the pill, Sandy Sue reported that she felt drowsy and wanted to lie down. The pill was actually made of sugar and had no ingredients to cause drowsiness. How do you explain Sandy Sue's drowsy feeling?

follows the normal curve

Most standardized tests of intelligence have a distribution of scores that ________.

Wernicke's

Mary suffered a head injury in a car accident last week. Since that time she is able to speak fluently but uses the wrong words when expressing herself. Mary may be exhibiting ________ aphasia.

True

Neither nightmares nor night terrors are evidence of psychological problems.

flashbulb memory

Many middle-aged adults can vividly recall where they were and what they were doing the day that John F. Kennedy was assassinated, although they cannot remember what they were doing the day before he was assassinated. This is an example of ________.

autonomy versus shame and doubt

Which of Erik Erikson's psychosocial crises revolves around the child's learning to direct his or her own behavior?

information-processing model

Which model of memory is most similar in conceptualization to the way computers function?

we are seeing primarily with the rods

It is difficult to distinguish between colors at night because ________.

the cortex making sense of signals from the brain stem

How does the activation-synthesis hypothesis explain dreaming?

denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance

the correct sequence of the five stages of death and dying postulated by Kübler-Ross is ________

stage 4

The stage of sleep marked by the production of very slow delta waves is ________ sleep.

scaffolding

A teacher works one-on-one with a student and then begins to withdraw help as the student becomes more skilled.

sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operations; formal operations

Which of the following is the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?

focus on some distant point

Natasha is learning ballet and is just starting on high-speed spins. Her teacher tells her that to avoid motion sickness, she should ________.

Proximity

tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping

An operational definition is ________.

the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of behavior, that researchers want to measure

inferiority

According to Erikson, if an elementary school child fails to succeed in learning new skills and knowledge, the result may be the development of a sense of ______________.

selective attention

Information gets from sensory memory to short-term memory through the process of ________.

humanism

You attend a lecture by a psychologist who uses terms such as free will, humannature, and self-actualization. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with the points the psychologist presented?

restorative theory

According to this theory, sleep is necessary for growth and repair of the body

unconditioned stimulus

Pavlov placed meat powder in the mouths of dogs, and they began to salivate. The food acted as a (an)

circadian

A biological cycle, or rhythm, that is approximately 24 hours long is called a(n) ________ cycle.

serotonin

Which neurotransmitter is associated with sleep, mood, and appetite?

divergen

What type of thinking could be described as taking different directions in search of a variety of answers to a question?

specific hair cells that are stimulated

The place theory of pitch suggests that pitch is determined by the ________.

stimulus generalization

After Little Albert acquired a conditioned fear of rats, Watson wanted to see how he would react to a white rabbit, cotton wool, and a Santa Claus mask. He was studying whether or not ________ had occurred.

the cocktail party phenomenon

Someone a short distance away, to whom you have been paying no attention, quietly speaks your name, and suddenly you attend to that person. This is an example of ________

encodi9ng

he first step in the memory process is ________ information in a form that the memory system can use.

biological preparedness

Human beings generally have an aversion to bitter and sour foods. Some researchers suggest that this is because foods that are inedible or even poisonous are often bitter or sour. The tendency of human beings to find these potentially harmful foods repulsive is an example of ________.

practical intelligence

According to Robert Sternberg, ________ is best described as "street smarts,"or the ability to use information to get along in life. People who have it know how to be tactful, how to manipulate situations to their advantage, and how to use inside information to increase their odds of success.

memory

________ is defined as an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters information as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage.

confirmation bias

What term do psychologists use to describe our tendency to search for evidence that supports our belief and to ignore evidence that might disprove it

elaborative and maintenance

What are the two major types of rehearsal (for moving information from short-term to long-term memory)?

the pain message goes up the spinal column to the central area of the spinal cord instead of going all the way to the brain

Cameron touches a hot iron and immediately pulls his hand away. His quick response occurs because ________.

Social-cognitive theory of hypnosis

people merely are playing a role

continuous reinforcement

You walk up to a soda machine and put in a dollar, and are rewarded with a bottle of root beer. When you put in another dollar, you get another soda. Assuming that the machine does not run out of root beer, which kind of reinforcement schedule does this machine operate on?

learned helplessness

College students faced with unsolvable problems eventually give up and make only halfhearted attempts to solve new problems, even when the new problems can be solved easily. This behavior is probably due to ________.

Gestaltist

Which type of early psychologist believed that "the whole is more than the sum of its parts"?

vision and hearing

Megan just turned 32. She is keenly aware of biological changes that occur as she gets older. What's more, she measures the sensitivity of her senses and other physical characteristics by using sophisticated testing equipment. In which of the following areas is she likely to find some decline?

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