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c.

Which of the following is not a reason why Africans enslaved other Africans, and sold them to Europeans?
a. Africans at the time did not have a sense of themselves as "Africans," and had not really developed a concept of racial solidarity.
b. Warfare and interethnic rivalries among African tribes contributed; selling members of defeated tribes proved a way to get rid of opponents.
c. African tribes forced Europeans to buy slaves or face certain annihilation.
d. Africans were initially reluctant to sell members of their own tribes.

c.

Where did most of the slaves from Africa go?
a. to the English colonies in North America
b. to Mexico, to assist in mining for gold
c. to Brazil, to work on the sugar plantations
d. to the Caribbean to work on sugar and other plantations

d.

Slavery in the Americas developed along different lines than had slavery in Africa. Which of the following was not one of those differences?
a. Slavery in the Americas was based on race.
b. Most of the slaves in the Americas were male.
c. Most of the slaves in the Americas were used as agricultural laborers, rather than fighters or domestic servants.
d. In West Africa, female slaves were only used to make cloth, while they generally did hard agricultural work in the Americas.

b.

The Spanish and Portuguese dominated the early slave trade with the Africans. Which nation ousted them from this status in the early seventeenth century?
a. Holland
b. England
c. France
d. Germany

d.

Why did the British want to take over the slave trade in the late seventeenth century?
a. Their ongoing war with France demanded a supply of soldiers.
b. They needed labor for tobacco cultivation in Virginia and Maryland.
c. They wanted the taxes paid to the slave trade leader by other European nations.
d. They had begun to establish sugar plantations in Brazil and needed labor.

b.

Which of the following is true about the path a slave—once captured—took to the market in Africa?
a. Generally, the captured slaves thought they would be treated fairly and submitted to the long stages of travel.
b. The trips to the coast were generally brief, as most Africans traded as slaves lived near that area.
c. African tribes kept trading stations along routes, for access to food and water. They wanted as few as possible to die along the way.
d. The slaves were tied together with ropes, or had "yokes" around their necks during the journey.

b.

What steps did the Europeans take to reduce the risk of rebellion at the slave factories in Africa?
a. Slaves were kept drugged and shackled with heavy chains.
b. Families and ethnic groups were separated.
c. Men and women were separated into separate trading towns.
d. Europeans didn't really have to take many steps, as the completely overwhelmed Africans often submitted to the process.

d.

Which of the following was not a characteristic of a typical slave ship?
a. Slaves were separated by gender to prevent rebellion.
b. Slave captains packed their ships as tightly as possible to maximize profit.
c. Mortality rates were very high due to unsanitary conditions and the rapid spread of disease.
d. Slave ships were generally poorly constructed, and were more likely to fall apart on their way to the Americas as make it there.

b.

What do we learn from the story written by Olaudah Equiano, a former slave?
a. Some slaves were treated with kindness and empathy of their initial captors.
b. The middle passage was an incredibly difficult experience for Africans, torn from their home and families and forced into horrifying conditions.
c. Because of their advantage in numbers, some slaves succeeded in rebelling against their captors, seizing control of the slave ship and returning to Africa.
d. Slaves usually failed to resist to the process of slavery.

a.

What do we learn from the story of John Newton, a British slave-ship captain?
a. Some devoutly Christian people never saw a contradiction between their jobs trading in human cargo and their religious beliefs.
b. Christians could be cruel, harsh slavers.
c. Ships' captains filled their ships with slaves quickly, usually in one stop at an African trading center.
d. Both that Christians could be cruel, harsh slavers and that some never saw a contradiction between trading in human cargo and their religious beliefs.

a.

What was not true about the rapid spread of disease on slave ships?
a. Physicians had not developed the theories relating the spread of germs to disease, but thought that illnesses were spread by imbalances in bodily fluids.
b. Generally, ship doctors used a primitive form of inoculation to prevent the worst diseases.
c. Slave ships had inadequate and highly unsanitary ways of disposing of human waste.
d. Slavers forced their captives to eat using common spoons and bowls.

c.

What disease took the lives of most slaves while on board the slave ships?
a. typhoid
b. measles
c. smallpox
d. influenza

c.

Which of the following does not characterize doctors of slave ships at the time?
a. Many collected African remedies to help with illnesses at sea.
b. Since slavers wanted to keep as many slaves alive as possible, ships' doctors had an unusually sophisticated knowledge of medicine at the time.
c. They were often given incentives for the number of slaves they kept alive on the voyage.
d. They began to understand connections between health, hygiene and diet after about 1750.

d.

Slave rebellions were not an uncommon experience on slave ships. Which of the following was not a common way for slaves to rebel or resist their imprisonment?
a. by refusing to eat
b. by drowning themselves
c. organizing and carrying out bloody, violent rebellions
d. by stealing life boats and rowing back to shore prior to the ship leaving for the Americas.

b.

How did African women's experiences differ from African men's on board slave ships?
a. Crews treated African women to better food, hoping to gain their trust and keep them from rebelling.
b. African women experienced sexual violence by the ships' crews. This high level of violence, and its psychological effects, may have led to their lessened sex drives once the women arrived in the Caribbean and Latin America.
c. African women generally were treated with more respect, since they could reproduce and therefore gain a higher price on the market.
d. African women were beaten frequently, as European men found their lack of "manners" disgusting.

a.

Many slaves were sold once they reached the West Indies. What was typical of the sale process?
a. Slavers allowed the slaves some time to rest and recuperate before sale.
b. Slavers adhered to a scrupulous code of ethics and refused to sell a sick or injured slave.
c. The sale process was very quick once the slaves reached the West Indies.
d. New owners were given detailed, written histories of their slaves, including medical information.

a.

Which of the following best describes "seasoning" for the newly arrived slaves?
a. the process of becoming accustomed to and learning new skills for their lives in the Americas
b. the punishment process for rebellion by new slaves; new owners learned to be very harsh to teach new slaves a lesson quickly
c. being fattened up and prepared for sale
d. an identification process, involving the branding of newly arrived slaves, similar to cattle branding

a.

Which of the following is not true of Creoles or older Africans?
a. They were considered less valuable than other Africans for many reasons.
b. They generally were more familiar with the European languages.
c. They had become accustomed to the diseases and new climate of the area.
d. Since whites were in the minority of the population, they could help train new arrivals.

b.

How was work divided among the slaves during seasoning in the West Indies?
a. Children worked alongside their parents, sharing work hours and tasks.
b. Masters generally split the slaves up into several gangs, with the strongest men doing the heaviest work, the older slaves and women doing weeding, and children assisting in light tasks.
c. Creoles never worked in the field, only in the masters' house as domestic servants.
d. Many of the slaves were chosen for skilled tasks, such as carpentry and bricklaying.

c.

How did a planter decide if a slave had been "seasoned"?
a. The slave began to plant African foods in the New World.
b. The slave began to speak Spanish, French or English perfectly.
c. The slave seemed psychologically stable, and did not participate in armed rebellion or suicide attempts.
d. The slave settled down, got married, and had children.

a.

Which European country took the lead in exploration and colonization in the early 1400s?
a. Portugal
b. France
c. England
d. Switzerland

a.

Europeans found native populations in the areas of North and South America. Why did they need labor from Africa?
a. The Native Americans quickly began to die in huge numbers from diseases imported by the Europeans.
b. Native Americans refused to be captured or work as slaves in fields or mines.
c. Europeans rapidly established cordial relationships with many native peoples, hoping to gain their cooperation voluntarily.
d. There were not enough Native Americans to satisfy the needs of Europeans.

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