Chapter 23 The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Old Regime

system of Feudalism left over from the Middle Ages. Noblemen helped sweep away feudal privileges of First and Second Estate making commoners and peasants equal to nobles. They were motivated far more by fear than idealism.

Estates

the 3 social classes in France before the French Revolution

Which group belonged to which estate/%

1st Estate is Clergy(high office, didn't pay taxes, made up of Roman Catholic Church) payed 2% of taxes, 2nd Estate is Nobility(high office, didn't pay taxes) payed no taxes, 3rd Estate is Peasants (3 Groups) payed 1/2 of income to Nobles

Louis XVI

weak leader, became king in 1774, inherited debt from previous rulers, funding for American Wars took lots of money

Marie Antoinette

not popular with people, spends all money, named Madame Deficit

Estates-general

an Assembly of Representatives from all 3 of the Estates in France

National Assembly

The third estate were influenced by the enlightenment, and were eager to change the government. The King sided with the nobles and ordered the estates general to follow medieval rules. The third estate was gaining more power. The third estate people call themselves the National Assembly, and pass laws and reforms in the name of the French people. They voted to establish the national assembly, and on the 3rd day, they were locked out of their meeting room. They broke down the door and said they would not leave till there was a new constitution.

Tennis Court Oath

3rd Estates found themselves locked out of meeting room so they broke into a Tennis Room and stayed until a new Constitution was written.

Bastille

Louis tried to make peace by yielding to the National Assembly and ordered everyone to follow their rules. French citizens formed a mob, attacked Bastille, and took the city. This was considered an act of freedom, and is considered the 4th of July of France.

Great Fear

Rumors of nobles hiring outlaws to terrorize the peasants were circulating. A wave of senseless called the great fear hit. Many ordinary citizens became outlaws. Women rioted and killed two guards. The king and his servants had to leave, and never saw the magnificent palace Versailles again.

Women's March

6,000 Women rioted over the rising price of Bread. Men and Women broke into Versailles and ordered Louis, Marie, and the kids out and banished them to Paris.

Declaration of the Rights of Man

Declaration of Rights of Man was a statement of Revolutionary Ideals which reflected the influence of enlightenment ideas. "Men are born free and Remain equal in Rights". The declaration did not apply to women.

Olympe de Gouges

What about women? Objected to the Declaration not applying to women, was executed later for it.

Legislative Assembly

had power to create laws and approve or prevent any war declared on other nations

Radicals

"left wing" opposed the King/Monarchy, wanted LOTS of change in government and proposed that common people have full power in a republic

Conservatives

"centrists" Wanted some change in government, but not as much as Radicals.

Moderates

"right wing" Upheld the idea of a limited monarchy, wanted few changes in government.

Emigres

Nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprising. They hoped to undo revolution.

Sans-culottes

Parisian wage-earners and small shop keepers who wanted to keep a voice in government.

Jacobins

Most radical group in 1792, where violent speech making was the order of the day. They wanted to remove the king and establish a republic

Marat

most prominent radical leaders. During the Revolution he edited a radical Newspaper. His fiery editorials called for "five or six hundred heads cut off: to rid France of the enemies of the Revolution.

Danton

a revolutionary leader who was devoted to the Rights of Paris's poor people, joined the club as a talented speaker.

Guillotine

head-cutter. Thousands were executed by it during the French Revolution.

Louis XVI's attempted Escape

As the relationship between Church and State, Louis XVI pondered his faith as a monarch. Advisers warned him that he and his family were in danger. Many supporters of the Monarchy, left the country. Louis tried to escape to Austria, and was recognized by a postman. His family was escorted by guards back to Paris where he sealed his doom.

M. Robespierre

Robespierre and his followers set out to build a government of virtue. He tried to erase France's past, no household item would go unnoticed. He became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety. He governed France almost as a dictator, and his reign was called the Reign of Terror. The famous victim was the former queen, Marie Antoinette. Fellow revolutionaries challenged his leadership. The National convention feared defending him, but joined in condemning him to death. Thousands of people were sentenced to death under the flimsiest charges.

Committee of Public Safety

a committee established during the French Revolution to identify "enemies of the republic"

Reign of Terror

the period from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Rospierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed.

The Directory

3rd Constitution written, placed power firmly in the hands of the upper middle class and called a two-house legislature and an executive body of five men. The five men were moderates, not revolutionary idealists.

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte went to Military School at the age of 9, and finished at the age of 16 when he became a lieutenant in the artillery during the revolution. Napoleon was handed his fate when an official told him to protect the delegates. The attackers fled in panic and confusion as he was called the hero of the hour. He was appointed to lead an army against Austria. He won a series of battles, and crushed the Austrian threat to France. He went to Egypt where he was pinned down, but made sure that General was only related to Napoleon.

Coup d etat

The directory lost control of the political situation in France, but their control over the Army kept them in power. Napoleon was urged to seek political power with his wife Josephine. They tried to influence the directory to give them power, but the next day, negotiations ended and his army drove members out of the chamber. Three consuls were developed, and Napoleon was head of one of them. Coup d'etat is a sudden change of power. When he took power, France was at war. He took his troops to fight, and eventually a treaty was signed making peace. It had been 10 years since France wasn't fighting. Napoleon worked on restoring order to France.

Josephine

Napoleon's wife, later she was divorced

Plebiscite

a vote of the people, in order to choose a new constitution. It gave all real power to Napoleon.

The Improvements of Napoleon

Napoleon kept many of the changes from the revolution, and France had order and stability. Setting up a good economy was key, and Napoleon set up a new tax policy. He wanted to rid the government of corrupt officials, and he created lycees— government run public schools, all children were able to attend. A concordant was signed which showed church's influence, but gave them no power on national affairs. He had a Napoleonic code which had a uniform set of laws, eliminated injustices, limited liberty, and promoted order and authority over individual rights. Laws were restricted rather than expanded

Lycees

government run public schools, all children were able to attend.

Concordat

(agreement) between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII. Showed church's influence, but gave them no power on national affairs.

Napoleonic Code

a uniform set of laws, eliminated injustices, limited liberty, and promoted order and authority over individual rights.

The Crowning of Napoleon

December 2, 1804, Napoleon was crowned emperor. He walked down the aisle at Notre Dame, and there the pope handed him a crown, and he crowned himself making a gesture that he had more power than the church.

Admiral Horatio Nelson

commander of the British fleet that defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar.

Battle of Trafalgar

This was the only battle lost by Napoleon, and was the most important battle than any other. He lost his sharpshooter(Horatio). The destruction of the Navy had two major results; The British Navy had supremacy for the next 100 years, his extravagant efforts to crush Britain would lead to his own undoing.

Louisiana Purchase

President Jefferson's administration agreed to purchase the land for 15 million. Napoleon was delighted. He would gain money to finance operations in France, and he would further punish his British enemies.

Continental System

Napoleon ordered a blockade to stop all trade between Great Britain and other European Nations. He called this system the continental system since it was supposed to make Great Britain more self sufficient. Some people disregarded this rule and were able to get product from Britain to Europe. The British made their own blockade that taxed ships coming to Europe. This was an inconvenience to the U.S., thus starting the War of 1812. The Continental System hurt Napoleon more than his enemies.

Blockade

a forcible closing of ports, Napoleon signed in November 1806. Prevented trade and communication between Great Britian and other European nations

Peninsula War

His second mistake was invading Portugal because they weren't following the Continental System. Napoleon put his brother Joseph on the thrown enraging loyalists. The French attacked the church by outlawing the Spanish Inquisition. Guerilla attacks were common in Spain since people disagreed. During the Peninsula War, 300,000 men were killed which weekend the French. Other people conquered by the French were turning against the French.

Guerrillas

bands of peasant fighters struck at French armies in Spain. Napoleon could not defeat them in battle b/c they were ordinary people who attacked then fled into hiding.

Scorched Earth Policy

burning grain fields and slaughtering livestock so as to leave nothing the enemy could eat.

Napoleon's Downfall

Napoleon's enemies were quick to take advantage of France's Weakness, all his major enemies were against him. Napoleon's personality proved to be the greatest danger for his future. His drive for power raised him, and his love for power led to his doom. Within a few months, he had constructed a new army that was inexperienced. His empire quickly crumbled, and when he wanted to fight, his generals refused. He surrendered, and was sent to an island, Elba, off the coast of Italy, and found it hard to retire at age 45. Almost immediately, there was opposition to the new ruler, citizens feared he would undo changes from the revolution. Napoleon escaped, and gathered an Army of loyalists, who then regained the throne in a matter of days. At the battle of Waterloo, Napoleon and his troops held the British until the Prussian army came, and they sent the French troops running. That ended his 100 days of rule. Then he was sent to a remote island, St. Helena, where he spent 6 years in exile. Napoleon was a military genius, but his success must be measured by the amount of lives lost.

Elba

He surrendered, and was sent to an island, Elba, off the coast of Italy, and found it hard to retire at age 45.

Hundred Days

a brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming the emperor of France.

Waterloo

At the battle of Waterloo, Napoleon and his troops held the British until the Prussian army came, and they sent the French troops running. That ended his 100 days of rule.

Congress of Vienna

a series of meetings in Vienna were called to set up policies to establish long-lasting peace and stability. Metternich had 3 goals at the Congress of Vienna; Prevent future French aggression -surrounding them with strong countries, Balance of Power—no country a threat to others, and restore royal families to the thrones before Napoleon's conquest

Klemens Von Metternich

Decisions made in Vienna were done secretly by five great powers; King Frederick William III of Prussia, Czar Alexander I of Russia, Emperor Francis I of Austria, Britain and France by Foreign ministers, and Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria—the most powerful. Metternich distrusted democratic ideals of the French Revolution. Napoleon's dictatorship was a result of experiments with democracy.

Balance of Power

no country a threat to others. Leaders of Europe wanted to weaken France, not take to much so they wouldn't seek revenge. Breaking up France could give another country great power. All land gained by Napoleon would be given taken away from France.

Legitimacy

Great powers affirmed the principle of legitimacy, they restored the leaders that had lost their thrones to Napoleon. The Congress of Vienna believed that restoring the original rulers would help promote peace and stability between the nations. The Congress was a political triumph—no one felt they had been cheated. For once, the political powers of an entire continent were in agreement. The European nations had temporarily assured a balance of power.

Concert of Europe

nations would help each other in case of revolutions.

Holy Alliance

Late in 1815, Czar Alexander, Emperor Francis I of Austria, and King Fredrick William III of Prussia entered a league or agreement that loosely bound them together.

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