Chapter 5 Social Interaction, Groups, and Social Structure

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Chapter 5 Social Interaction, Groups, and Social Structure A Brief introduction to Sociology, ninth ed., 9th ed.

Philip Zimbardo's study of a simulated prison environment that used college students as prisoners and prison guards

demonstrated that a social structure can influence the type of social interactions that occur.

Which sociologist is widely known for his mock-prison experiment involving college students in order to study social structure and social interaction?

Philip Zimbardo

Social interaction is

the ways in which people respond to one another.

Which of the following is an example of social interaction?

Sally and Veronica, a lesbian couple, argue about a new piece of gay-rights legislation.

Which of the following terms refers to the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships?

social structure

According to Herbert Blumer, the distinctive characteristic of human interaction is that

the reality of humans is shaped by our perceptions and evaluations.

humans respond to behavior based on the meaning we attach to the actions of others.

humans interpret or define each other's actions.
all of these

Which of the following believed that the "distinctive characteristic of social interaction among people is that human beings interpret or 'define' each other's actions instead of merely reacting to each other's actions?"

Herbert Blumer

Which of the following is true regarding marriage in Japan?

most husbands do not call their wife by name

One of the most crucial aspects of the relationship between dominant and subordinate groups is the ability of the dominant group to

define a society's values.

The analysis of how the "definition of the situation" can mold the thinking and personality of the individual is associated with the

interactionist perspective.

William I. Thomas notes that people respond not only to the objective features of a person or situation but also to the meaning that the person or situation has for them. This view represents which sociological perspective

interactionist perspective

In what ways did boxer Muhammad Ali rebel against racist thinking and terminology that restricted him?

refused to serve in Vietnam
became a Black Muslim
changed his own name
all of these

Which term is used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society?

status

Jan, Randy, and Terry are science majors, and when they graduate from college, they find jobs as a nurse, a midwife, and a hospital administrator, respectively. These new positions are examples of

statuses.

An ascribed status is a social position

"assigned" to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics.

Ascribed statuses may be based on an individual's

race.
gender.
age.
all of these

Which of the following statements about an ascribed status is correct?

It is biological in origin, but significant mainly because of the social meanings attached to it within a given culture.

Which of the following is an ascribed status?

a South African

Which sociological perspective(s) is (are) especially interested in ascribed statuses, because they often confer privileges or reflect a person's membership in a subordinate group?

conflict perspective

An achieved status is a social position

attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.

An individual can acquire an achieved status by

attending school.
establishing a friendship.
inventing a new product.
all of these

Which of the following is an achieved status?

television news reporter

A master status is a

status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position within society

When Malcolm X's eighth grade teacher dismissed Malcolm's desire career goal of lawyer and instead suggested he become a carpenter, the teacher viewed Malcolm's race as a (an)

master status

You walk into your women's studies class, and you look at the person sitting to your left. He is the only male in the class; he is about 20 years old, wears a wedding ring, and carries a bag with a tennis racquet. Which of his characteristics is most likely his master status in the context of this class?

his marital status

Which term is used by sociologists to refer to a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status?

social role

Which of the following statements about social roles is correct?

Actual performance of a role varies from individual to individual

Which sociological perspective emphasizes that social roles contribute to a society's stability by enabling members to anticipate the behavior of others and to pattern their own actions accordingly?

functionalist perspective

Which term is used to refer to incompatible expectations that arise when the same person holds two or more social positions?

role conflict

Elaine is a clinical sociologist who practices marriage and family therapy. She is also a college professor. One of her current students asks her if she can make an appointment for a therapy session. Elaine tells the student that she will refer her to a colleague because she feels that holding therapy sessions with a student might create

role strain.

A woman in her mid-30s has enrolled in a local community college to earn a degree in horticulture. The night before her first major course examination, she is asked by her boss to work several additional hours because they have just received a major order that needs to be processed immediately. This student is experiencing

role exit.

The difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations is known as

role strain.

Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh studied

role exit.

Role exit is defined as

the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one's self-identity and the re-establishment of an identity in a new role.

A (an) __________ is any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who regularly and consciously interact.

group

A primary group is a small group that is

characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation.

Which type of group plays a pivotal role in the socialization process and the development of roles and statuses?

primary groups

Which of the following is most likely to be a primary group?

the members of a neighborhood softball team

Which type of group is most important for socialization?

primary groups

Which term is used to refer to a formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding?

secondary group

Which of the following is most likely to be a secondary group?

the members of the United Nations General Assembly

The distinction between "in-groups" and "out-groups" was first made by

William Graham Sumner

Any group or category to which people feel they belong is called a (an)

in-group.

A group to which people feel they do not belong is called a (an)

out-group.

You are taking a sociology class from Dr. Jones at your local community college. Which of the following is most likely to be an out-group?

the clique of students in the front of your classroom who all attended high school together and who now "hang" with one another after class

Which sociological perspective would be most likely to emphasize that "we" and "they" feelings promote in-group solidarity and a sense of belonging?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Proper behavior for the in-group is often viewed as unacceptable behavior for the out-group. Sociologist Robert Merton describes this process as the conversion of "in-group virtues" into

"out-group vices."

The destructive consequences of tensions between in-groups and out-groups would probably be stressed by which sociological perspective?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

A woman who has not attended school in 13 years enrolls for classes at the local community college. She is afraid that her younger classmates might not accept her. On the first day of class, she observes the clothing styles of her classmates, and after school she goes shopping and purchases similar clothes. Her classmates could be considered

a reference group.

Which sociological perspective would emphasize the role of reference groups in setting and enforcing standards of conduct and belief?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Which term is used by sociologists when speaking of any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior?

reference group

A college law enforcement major watches the behavior of television police detectives with great admiration. These detectives could be considered

a reference group

A social network is

a series of social relationships that link a person directly to others and therefore indirectly to still more people

Bearman, Moody, and Stovel's study of romantic relationships and social networks of high school students showed

most students were involved in a free-flowing network of relationships.

Which of the following statements about social networks is true?

Even network connections that are weak may be useful.

Which of the following is true regarding jobs, social networks, and gender?

networking pays off more for men

Sociological research that maps sexual relationships among high school students is an example of research on

social networks.

A group of businesswomen meet on a monthly basis to assist one another in advancing their careers. They give each other job leads and advice, and they invite business leaders to attend their sessions to provide further assistance. This group is an example of

social networking.

Researchers studying the connections between the habit of smoking and social networks found

social networks typically linked those who either smoked or did not smoke.

By what percentage did the risk of the other person continuing to smoke fall, when spouses quit, according to researchers studying smoking and social networks?

67%

A three-dimensional model, two-dimensional icon, or constructed personality provided by an Internet site is referred to as a (an)

avatar

Which of the following is true regarding virtual worlds?

They have become politicized and consumer-oriented

Which of the following terms is used to refer to organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs?

social institutions

Which of the following would be an example of a social institution?

the U.S. government

Which sociological perspective suggests that a society or a relatively permanent group must accomplish certain major tasks if it is to survive?

functionalist perspective

Functional prerequisites are

tasks that a society or relatively permanent group must accomplish if it is to survive

Which of the following functional prerequisites was not fulfilled by the religious sect known as the Shakers?

replacing personnel

The patriotic behavior of U.S. citizens on January 20, 2009 to witness the Inauguration of President Barack Obama is a testament to the importance of

providing and maintaining a sense of purpose

The conflict view holds that social institutions

maintain the privileges of the powerful individuals and groups within a society.

Which sociologist studied the social behavior of word processors as a method of researching social networks and the effect social institutions play on them?

Mitchell Duneier

Mitchell Duneier studied the social network and social behavior of whom as a method of researching the effects of social institutions on them?

female word processors

Mitchell Duneier's work regarding social networks operates from which sociological perspective

interactionist perspective

Special-purpose groups designed and structured in the interests of maximum efficiency are known as

formal organization

Formal organizations may vary in

size.
degree of efficiency.
specificity of goals.
all of these

Which of the following is an example of a formal organization?

the General Motors Corporation

Which one of the following ascribed statuses influences people's self-images within formal organizations?

gender

Which of the following statements about the relationship between gender and self-image in a formal organization is correct?

In law firms in which less than 15 percent of partners were women, the female lawyers were likely to believe that traits viewed as "feminine" were strongly devalued.

A bureaucracy is a (an)

component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency.

Which sociologist emphasized the basic similarity of structure and process found in the otherwise dissimilar enterprises of religion, government, education, and business?

Max Weber

A construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which specific cases can be evaluated is called a (an)

ideal type.

By working at a specific task, people are more likely to become highly skilled and carry out a job with maximum efficiency. This is the rationale for the bureaucratic characteristic of

Division of Labor

Which sociological perspective might observe the division of labor among the staff members in a hospital emergency room and focus on how the allocation of responsibilities affects their relationships with one another?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels charged that the capitalist system reduces workers to a mere "appendage of the machine," which leads to extreme

alienation.

The estrangement of workers from the larger society is called

alienation.

Which of the following does Marx and conflict theorists believe is weakened by restricting workers to very small tasks?

job security

The tendency of workers in a bureaucracy to become so specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice obvious problems is known as

trained incapacity.

As explained in the text, the public attention given the failure of various government intelligence-gathering organizations to detect the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 illustrates which poorly functioning aspect of government bureaucracy?

division of labor

A college is run by a board of trustees, which hires a president, who in turn selects vice presidents, deans, and other administrators. This is an example of the bureaucratic characteristic of

hierarchy of authority.

Goal displacement is

overzealous conformity to official regulations within a bureaucracy.

A woman and her two children walk into a homeless shelter. They are obviously starving, dirty, and the children are crying. The shelter attendant refuses them admittance, although there is ample room in the shelter, because the mother does not have the proper identification card. This is an example of

goal displacement

Which of these comments about a bureaucracy is correct?

all of these

Which one of the following would be an example of a negative consequence of bureaucratization?

employees deprived of a voice in decision making

The notion that every employee within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence is referred to as

the Peter principle.

In U.S. society today, the bureaucratic principles that govern an organization like McDonald's may also be seen in

sports events

Bureaucratization is

the process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic.

The "iron law of oligarchy" is a principle

of organizational life according to which even democratic organizations will become bureaucracies ruled by a few individuals

Oligarchies emerge because

people in leadership roles have skills, knowledge, or charismatic appeal.

Activists in a large city join forces to create a new organization with the goal of preserving landmark buildings that have historical importance. At first, the organization functions democratically, but over time it is taken over by three people. These leaders establish a bureaucratic structure that helps them to maintain control of the organization. These developments can be best explained by

the scientific management approach.

According to the classical theory of formal organizations, workers are motivated almost entirely by

economic rewards.

Planning based on the human relations approach focuses on

the role of people, communication, and participation among the company executives.

The phrase "bureaucracy's other face," which refers to the unofficial activities and interactions that are a basic part of daily organizational life, was coined by

Charles Page.

In a society organized around mechanical solidarity, which of the following tasks would you most likely engage in?

...

Émile Durkheim suggested that as a society becomes more complex, the nature of solidarity becomes more

mechanical.

Ferdinand Tönnies used the term __________ to refer to communities that are large, impersonal, and often urban, with little consensus concerning values or commitment to the group.

Gesellschaft

Ferdinand Tönnies would view hunting-and-gathering societies as examples of a

Gemeinschaft.

In a small town in the Midwest, all of the children attend the same school and most of the community members attend the same church. Everyone in this community knows everyone else, and they have shared numerous experiences with one another. This community would be characterized by Ferdinand Tönnies as a (an)

Gemeinschaft.

Today, Steve went into a grocery store where a stranger checked out his purchases and another stranger bagged his groceries. Then he went to Wendy's and purchased a hamburger from another stranger, and on his way home he stopped at an intersection, where an unknown police officer raised her hand. These experiences are all characteristic of

Gesellschaft relationships

Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft are concepts that were introduced to sociology by

Ferdinand Tönnies.

In Gerhard Lenski's view, societal organization is highly dependent on its level of

technology.

An analysis of sociocultural evolution that distinguishes between preindustrial and industrial societies was developed by

Gerhard Lenski.

Which of the following can be defined as the long-term trends in societies resulting from the interplay of continuity, innovation, and selection?

sociocultural evolution

A preindustrial society in which people rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available in order to live is called a (an)

hunting-and-gathering society.

The Yanomamö, a South American culture, live in a village and spend most of their time searching for food and tending small gardens. Their primary tool is a stone ax, which they use for cutting down trees to expand their gardens. The Yanomamö are an example of a (an)

hunting-and-gathering society

In the most technologically advanced form of preindustrial society, members are engaged primarily in food production. They increase their crop yields through such innovations as the plow. This type of society is called a (an)

agrarian society.

The industrial revolution, pushing societies from agrarian-based economies to those dependent on mechanization first appeared when?

1760-1850

Which of the following sociologists provided a vision of social structure in society?

all of these

A society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services is called a (an)

industrial society

Which of the following is characteristic of the emergence of industrial societies?

all of these

A society whose economic system is engaged in the processing and control of information is called a (an)

postindustrial society

A society that is primarily concerned with providing services rather than manufacturing goods is a (an)

postmodern society.

Daniel Bell views postindustrial societies as consensual, because he believes that postindustrial societies are characterized by interest groups concerned with such national issues as health, education, and the environment working for the common good. Bell's view represents which sociological perspective

functionalist perspective

Which functionalist theorist views the transition from industrial to postindustrial societies as a positive development because he sees a general decline in organized working-class groups and a rise in interest groups concerned with such national issues as health, education, and the environment?

Daniel Bell

Which conflict theorist, who wrote The Other America, is critical of the significance that functionalists place on the growing class of white-collar workers in postindustrial societies?

...

A technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images is called a (an)

postmodern society

In the U.S., we listen to music imported from Jamaica, eat sushi and other Japanese foods, and watch movies produced in Italy. These are all features of a (an)

postmodern society.

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