Chemistry Ch. 8-Covalent Bonding

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covalent bond

joining of atoms held together by sharing electrons

molecule

a neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds

diatomic molecule

a molecule consisting of two atoms

molecular compound

a compound composed of molecules

molecular formula

the chemical formula of a molecular compound

single covalent bond

two atoms held together by sharing a pair of electrons

structural formula

represents the covalent bonds by dashes and shows the arrangement of covalently bonded atoms

unshared pair

a pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms

double covalent bond

a bond that involves two shared pairs of electrons

triple covalent bond

a bond formed by sharing three pairs of electrons

coordinate covalent bond

a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons

polyatomic ion

a tightly bound group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge and behaves as a unit

bond dissociation energy

the energy required to break the bond between two covalently bonded atoms

resonance structure

the structure that occurs when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion

molecular orbitals

orbitals that apply to the entire molecule

bonding orbital

a molecular orbital that can be occupied by two electrons of a covalent bond

sigma bond

a bond formed when two atomic orbitals form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting two atomic nuclei

pi bond

a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are most likely to be found in sausage-shaped regions above and below the bond axis of the bonded atoms

tetrahedral angle

a bond angle of 109.5 that results when a central atom forms four bonds directed toward the center of a regular tetrahedron

VSEPR theory

because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust their shapes so that valence electron pairs are as far apart as possible

hybridization

the mixing of several atomic orbitals to form the same total number of equivalent hybrid orbitals

nonpolar covalent bond

a covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally by the two atoms

polar covalent bond

a covalent bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared equally

dipole

a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite charges

van der waals force

the two weakest intermolecular attractions-dispersion interactions and dipole forces

dipole interactions

intermolecular forces resulting from the attraction of oppositely charged regions of polar molecules

dispersion forces

attractions between molecules caused by the electron motion on one molecule affecting the electron motion on the other through electrical forces; these are the weakest interactions between molecules

hydrogen bond

attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently boned to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared pair of another electronegative atom

network solid

a solid in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded to each other

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