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collective

In a __________ people are engaged in a common activity, but have minimal interaction outside it

group

In a ___________ people 1) have direct interaction over time 2) have joint membership in a category 3) have a shared fate, identity, and/or goal

social facilitation

________ _________ asks: how does the presence of others affect our behavior?

conspecific

The presence of a ________ increases arousal according to social facilitation

increased arousal

The presence of conspecific causes _________ ________ according to social facilitation

mere presence theory evaluation apprehension theory

Social facilitation occurs because of Zajonc's _______ ________ __________ and __________ ___________ _______.

mere presence theory

Zajonc's ________ _________ ________ states that the presence of a conspecific is enough to trigger arousal

evaluation apprehension theory

___________ ___________ _______ states that someone must be in a position to evaluate one's performance to trigger arousal

distraction conflict theory

________ __________ _____ states that social facilitation occurs because there is attentional conflict b/t focusing on the task and focusing on the other person/thing

social loafing

_____ _______ is when people don't put in as much effort because they think others will carry their weight (the more people the more ____ ________).

arousal anonymity reduced feelings of individual responsibility

_______, _________, and _________ lead to deindividuation

social identity theory

________ _______ ______ says that people strive to enhance their self esteem through personal identity and group identity (in group favoritism/outgroup derogation)

realistic conflict theory (RCT)

hostility between groups as a result of competition for limited resources (actual or perceived) creates ______ ________ _______ .

superordinate identity goals

Finding a common ground, ______ _______ or _____ , can lesson the effects of realistic conflict theory

forming storming norming performing adjourning

The stages of group development are _____, _____,______, _______, ________

forming

The ______ stage of group development is full of polite behavior (usually reasonably happy behavior--"Hey! We're in a group. Let's do this!")

storming

The ______ stage of group development decides who will do what---fight it out.

norming

The ______ stage of group development decides group _____ (do we eat at the meetings? When do we meet? How long do we meet for?)

performing

The ______ stage of group development is actually doing the task

performing

Typically people want to do the _________ stage of group development first.

adjourning

In the ______ stage of group development people are usually sad unless it was a bad experience

group project

Any change to the _____ or ______ sends people back to square one of group development

formal informal

People's roles in groups can be ______ or ________

instrumental expressive

The two fundamental types of roles in groups are ______ and _______

achieve its task

The instrumental role in groups help the group _______________

emotional support helps maintain moral

The expressive role in groups provides ________ ________ and _______ _______ _________

informal

_______ group norms don't need to be stated

group norms

Groups establish _____ ______ or rules of conduct for members

polarization think

Movement within groups consists of group ________ and group_____.

Group polarization

________ _______ occurs when differences are magnified. When two desirable options are presented we loose the middle ground.

groupthink

__________ occurs when agreement with the group is more important than anything else (people shut down ideas outside their own)

functions of group norms

Group/organization survival, clarification of behavioral expectations, avoidance of embarrassment, and clarification of the central values/unique identity are the ________ __ ______ ______.

group polarization

_______ _____ is the exaggeration through group discussion of initial tendencies in the thinking of group members

groupthink

_______ emerges when the need for concurrence and agreement within a group takes priority over the motivation to obtain accurate info and make appropriate decisions

overestimation of the group closed-mindedness and increased pressures toward uniformity

__________, __________, and _________ are the symptoms of groupthink

mind guards

_____ ______ make sure no outside thoughts are allowed in a group

self-censorship

_______ _________ occurs as the cost of speaking goes up. No one speaks up and everyone thinks everyone else is in agreement so they don't speak either.

proximity mere exposure similarity reciprocal liking anxiety physical attractiveness

The factors that lead to attraction are _______ ______, _____ _______, _____, ______ _____, ________, and ____ _______.

proximity effect

The ______ _____ is the single best predictor of attraction

mere exposure effect

__________ ________ _______ states that the more often we are exposed to a stimulus the more we come to like it

reciprocal liking reciprocity

Heider's ________ ______/_______ says that people prefer relationships that are psychologically balanced.

reciprocal liking reciprocity

_____ ________/_______ is when a state of balance exists in a relationship

halo effect

The idea of what-is-beautiful-is-good is the ______ _______.

attribution

Being attractive causes ____ problems.

equity theory

________ ______ states that people are most content with a relationship when the ratio between the benefits and contribution is similar for both partners.

exchange communal

The types of relationships are _______ and _______

passionate companion

The types of love are ________ and ________

exchange

In _______ relationships people expect and desire strict reciprocity for their interactions (a clerk and a customer)

mutual responsiveness to each others needs

In communal relationships people expect and desire __________________________.

eros (erotic love) ludas (game-playing, uncommitted love) storge (friendship love)

The types of primary love are ________ , ________, and ________

primary

The types of ______ love are eros (erotic love), ludas (game-playing, uncommitted love), and storge (friendship love)

secondary

The types of _______ love are mania (demanding and possessive love), pragma (pragmatic love), and agape (other-oriented, altruistic love)

mania (demanding and possessive love) pragma (pragmatic love) agape (other-oriented, altruistic love)

The types of secondary love are ________, ________, and ___________

liking

The type of feeling that one has for a platonic friend is ________

high arousal intense attraction fear of rejection

Passionate love (romantic) is characterized by ______ _______, ______ _______, and ______ __ _____

passionate

________ love is characterized by high arousal, intense attraction, and fear of rejection

excitation transfer

When someone misattributes their physiological arousal to passionate love it is ______ ________

attraction build-up continuation deterioration ending

The stages of a relationship are _____, ______, _________, _______, and _______

kinship selection

The idea that we give preferential helping to genetic relatives so that our common genes will survive is ______ ________ (strongest when stakes are high).

moral hypocrisy

When people try to convince themselves and others that they are driven to help by moral principles it is ______ _______

altruistic

When one is motivated to help be the desire to increase another person's welfare it is _____

egoistic

When one is motivated to help by the desire to increase one's own welfare it is ___________

bystander effect

The ________ ________ states that the presence of others inhibits helping

a negatively toned emotion, which can range from mild annoyance to fury and outrage in response to a real or perceived injury, injustice, or threat

Anger is ___________

narrows attentional focus energizes to facilitate a response

Anger is functional because it ________ and ________

behavior aimed at causing harm, damage, or pain, either physical or mental against a target. The target can be either living or symbolic. Intention to harm is also characteristic of aggressive behavior.

Aggression is ___________________

active passive direct indirect physical verbal

The dimensions of aggression are _____ or _____, ______ or ______, and ______ or _____

instrumental aggression

________ _______ is employed to achieve a desired end

Thanatos

The internal drive toward self-destruction that when turned outward constitutes aggression is ________

ensure survival of the individual

Aggression is the instinct to _______ __________ __ __ ________(territory and resources)

frustration aggression hypothesis

The belief that frustration causes aggression and all aggression is the result of frustration is ________ _________ _________.

aversive experiences

_________________ subsumes frustration-common denominator is elevated motor activity (physiological arouses) that improves probability of survival. Gets linked to less urgent annoyances.

situational clues

________ __ are situational stimuli that are infused with meaning by their associations with aggression

alcohol anarchy dehumanization justification arousal

Aggression is disinhibited by _______, ______ ,____ ,________ , and ________.

identification treatment

Forensic psychology includes the _____ and _______ or criminals.

voluntary coerced-compliant coerced-internalized

The types of false confessions are _______ ,________, and ____________

fit to stand trial mental state now

competency asks: Is the defendant ___________? What is their _________ (at the time of the trail?

insanity

_______ refers to the mental state of the defendant at the time of the crime

McNaugten Rule

The ________ ______ states that the defendant must prove that a "disease of the mind" excuses conduct because they 1) didn't know what they were doing 2) and didn't know what they were doing was wrong

Browner Rule

The _______ ______ states that the defendant is not guilty if mental disease or defect causes them to lack substantial capacity to 1) appr3eciate the criminality of their conduct 2) conform conduct to the law

realistic conflict theory

Finding a common ground (superordinate identity/goal), can lesson the effects of ______ _______ ________

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