movement, support, heat production
3 major muscle functions
contractile, excitable, extensible, elastic
4 properties of the muscle
organs that use chemical energy to contract
skeletal, cardiac, smooth
3 types of muscle in the body
Broad fibrous connective tissue sheets found in cranium & obliques
Layers of connective tissue that hold muscle in position; Separate 1 muscle from another & projects to form tendon
Layer of connective tissue that surrounds entire muscle
Extends inward to compartmentalize tissue into fascicles that contain muscle fibers
Thin layer that covers each muscle fiber
surround/separate each muscle
Connective tissue extends beyond ends of muscle to create __.
Tendons are fused to the __ of the bone.
Muscles are connected by broad sheets of connective tissue called __.
__ is the layer of connective tissue closely around each muscle.
__ surrounds individual fascicles within muscles.
__ covers each muscle cell fiber.
the cell membrane of a muscle fiber
the cell cytoplasm of the muscle fiber
the endoplasmic reticulum of the muscle fiber
thick filaments are made of __.
thin filaments are made of __.
__ lays beneath the sarcolemma
besides sarcoplasm, __ __ lies beneath the sarcolemma
invaginations of the sarcolemma
transverse tubules lie between two __.
the organization of thick and thin filaments produces __.
myofibrils play a fundamental role in __ ___.
Functional unit of a muscle cell; repeating units composed of myofibrils
I bands are thick filaments and are anchored to _ _.
_ bands are made of thick & thin filaments
in the center of a bands is a _ _, consisting only of thick filaments
the m line is an area of _ only
The site where motor neuron & muscle fiber meet
motor end plate
the muscle fiber membrane forms a:
motor end plate
area in which sarcolemma is tightly folded; nuclei & mitochondria = abundant
Mitochondria, synaptic vesicles
The cytoplasm of the motor neuron contains __ & __ __
synaptic vesicles store __.
__ consists of 2 twisted strands with globular cross-bridges projected outwards along the strands
__ is a globular protein with myosin bonding sites
__ and __ are 2 proteins associated with the surface of actin filaments
energy source for contraction comes from molecules of:
__ __ stores excess energy released by the mitochondria & regenerates ATP
When ATP supply is low, __ __ promotes the synthesis of creatine phosphate
__ stores oxygen in muscle tissue.
___ in red blood cells carries oxygen to muscles
During rest/light activity, there's enough oxygen to support:
__ __ accumulates as an end product of anaerobic respiration
__ __has different uses out of muscle cells & is carried to the liver via bloodstream
Amount of oxygen that liver cells require to convert lactic acid to glucose, & amount that muscle cells need to resynthesize ATP & creatine phosphate
A muscle loses ability to contract
a sustained involuntary contraction caused by extracellular fluid
A muscle fiber remains unresponsive to stimulation unless the stimulation is of a certain strength
When a muscle fiber contracts, it contracts to its full extent
The recording of an electrically stimulated muscle contraction
Single, short contraction involving only a few motor units
Time delay between when stimulus is applied & when the muscle contracts
A series of simple twitches add up to a contraction
tetanic contraction (tetany)
If the sustained contraction lacks any relaxation, its called:
An increase in the # of activated motor units within a muscle at higher intensities of stimulation
Muscle __ is achieved by a continuous state of sustained contraction
Muscle shortens, movement occurs, work results
Muscle contracts but doesn't shorten, no movement/work, only tension
Complex membrane junctions, ___, join cells & transmit the force of contraction from 1 cell to the next & aid in rapid transmission impulses of the heart
the immovable end of a muscle
the movable end of a muscle
Within a group of muscles, 1 muscle doing the most work is