When did the Belgians begin to open elections up for the people of the Congo to select their own government leaders?
What formed the support base of most of the political parties in the open elections in the Congo?
single ethnic groups
Who founded the MNC in Belgian-ruled Congo and went on to become the independent state's first prime minister?
Which one of the following foreign powers was not directly involved in the permanent removal of democratically-elected Prime Minister Lumumba?
Which of the following international actors orchestrated the Katanga secession, destabilizing a democratically-elected regime?
The Belgians quick and sudden move to grant Congo independence was motivated by
their intent to covertly continue to control the new African government
How did the Untied Nations (UN) respond to Lumumba's request for help against Belgian's troops on Congo's territory?
The United Nations troops enforced the Belgium backed Katanga secession
What was the reasoning behind the Belgian government's sudden move to independence?
Belgian authorities deliberately tried to keep the Congolese people isolated from the radical political ideas in other countries. In 1956 tiny educated minority of clerks, teachers, and shopkeepers in the main urban centers were raising demands for the abolition of the racial discrimination which dominated all aspects of social and economic life in colony. Belgians believed they could satisfy this group by permitting them to take part in open elections for local government. Elections held in 1957 and early 1958. Political parties formed drawing their main support from single ethnic groups like ABAKO, CONAKAT, and MNC. In 1958 these aspiring African politicians quickly transformed their local interest into demands for political independence. By January 1959 riots broke out. The Belgian government panicked, fearful of provoking an Algerian-type war of liberation, and called the colony's main political leaders to a "Round Table Conference" in Belgium in January 1960. African politicians were prepared to negotiate anything up to a five year transition period towards internal self-government, but to their surprise Belgians agreed to full political independence within less than six months.
What is significant about the speech made by King Baudouin of Belgium at the Congo's independence ceremony on June 30, 1960? What did he urge the incoming Congolese government to do? What was Lumumba's response?
Made a paternalistic speech referring to Belgium's noble "civilizing mission" and praising his predecessor, Leopold II as a genius. He urged the incoming government not to indulge in "hasty reforms", but rather to heed the advice of their Belgian administrators and technocrats. Lumumba responded with a radical speech that castigated the brutality and injustice of Belgian rule. He declared the Congolese people finally free from the "humiliating slavery that was imposed on them by force.
How did General Mobutu seize power?
He took control of the Congo government through a bloodless coup d'etat.
Which of the following international political actors is responsible for transforming 'Hutu' and 'Tutsi' from largely flexible social and economic terms to rigid ethnic identities?
the German and Belgian colonizers
What has been described as a Belgian-sponsored revolution? Why?
Persecution turned into a series of massacres between November 1959 and October 1960 that has been described as a Belgian-sponsored revolution. Hundreds of Tutsi were kissed and tens of thousands were driven into exile in Burunde, Tanganyika and Uganda.
While there was initially some cooperation between Hutu and Tutsi within Burundi's UPRONA political party, the Tutsi leadership eventually purged Hutus from the party on the eve of gaining independence.
What international conference held in Accra in December 1958 propelled African political leaders to agitate for more political freedom?
All-African Peoples Conference
In African territories inhabited by white settlers, liberation struggles were not prolonged affairs as white settlers generally welcomed majority rule
Which of the following was not included in the central African federation formed by white settlers of southern Africa in 1940s-1950s?
Who became Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia after illegally making a unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) from the British in November 1965?
Portugal's disproportionate use of violent to suppress African protest in their colonies made clear that African liberation could only be won through_________________________.
Partido Africano da Independencia da Guinie e Cabo Verde (PAIGC)
Amilcar Cabral led this liberation movement in which schools, health clinics, roads, agricultural projects and trade were built and maintained in liberated areas.
Movimento Popular de Libertacao de Angola (MPLA)
In the mid-1950s, the urban working class of Luanda constituted this principal liberation movement. They sought freedom from forced labor practices including cotton production imposed by the Portuguese. Advancing its socialist program, it was the target of US backed FNLA and the South African backed movement
Uniao Nacional para a Independencia (UNITA)
Led by Jonas Savimbi, this movement sought to govern in place of the leaders of the principal liberation movement. Back by international players pursuing their interests, they were more concerned with fighting the other liberation movements in the region than fighting the Portuguese.
Frente de Libertacao de Mocambique (FRELIMO)
Eleven years after its leader Eduardo Mondlane and his deputy Samora Machel declared a war of liberation from Portugual, this unified armed liberation movement declared victory in 1975.
Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU)
Robert Mugabe took over the leadership of this liberation movement in 1975. In an effort to destabilize the neighboring government supporting this movement, Ian Smith's white settler government financed and armed a group of the neighboring country's citizens to blow up bridges, cut power lines and attack villages
Who took over leadership of ZANU in 1975 and went on to become the Prime Minister of Zimbabwe at independence?
By the 1970s South Africa had a population of _____ million whites who ruled over and dominated a population of up to ____ million blacks.
The ultimate aim of apartheid was to make blacks 'foreigners' in _____ per cent of the land of within the borders of the country of South Africa which was for whites only
What did the Population Registration Act and the Group Areas Act stipulate and legalize? What was the the social and economic impact of these laws?
The Population Registration Act classified people according to race, dividing them into white and nonwhite. The Group Areas Act determined where the various races could live. These acts were an attempt to weaken African unity and to destroy any African nationalism. These acts formed the apartheid system.
Apartheid South Africa actively sought ways to strengthen African unity and build country wide sense of African nationalism.
Where did a brutal massacre of unarmed demonstrators protesting against the apartheid regime in South Africa on March 21 1960 take place?
During 1952 the ANC staged a ________________, deliberately defying apartheid's segregationist laws and refusing to carry passes.
The colonies of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland all became a part of the Union of South Africa.
During the anti-colonial liberation struggles, Africans within British, French and Portuguese colonies with entrenched white settler populations
were most likely to experience violent armed conflict directed against them
The colony of Gold Coast renamed itself ___________ as it became the first modern African state to declare its independence from its colonial master in _____.
What constitutional change did the British make in the Gold Coast in 1946 that ignited educated Africans to pursue a greater share in government?
The revision made to the Gold Coast constitution allowed for an African majority in the Legislative Council.
United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) leader and Convention People's Party (CPP) founder, Kwame Nkrumah, was inspired by the ideals of ________________.
Which of the following is not a political tension found within Nigeria at the eve of the country's independence in 1960?
the population consisted of 35 million people in 1953.
Which of the following cases best exemplify colonial retreat by way of elite negotiation and scheduled transfer of power?
What was the main point of dispute among African nationalist leaders regarding the path to independence for French West and Equatorial African territories?
Senegal, Niger, Chad, and Mali favored the creation of two federations in order to ensure that each political unit would be powerful enough to hold future negotiations with France. Cote d'Ivoire opposed the federation
After voting 'Non' to maintaining a link with France, France dramatically withdrew all economic aid, equipment, and civil service personnel from __
Who formed the Polisario Front in the early 1970s in response to foreign occupation of their country?
Why were the French not willing to concede independence to Algeria?
With two million French settlers living in Algeria, it was France's principal colony
Nasir's nationalisation of the Suez Canal was made possible by Egyptian resistance and international opposition from which of the following countries?
United States and Soviet Union
Which of following new African states consisted of separately ruled British territories, Muslim-dominated north and the non-Muslim south?
Which of the following events spurred Tanganyikan nationalists to mass political activity?
In 1951, thousands of Meru farmers were forced to handover their land to white settlers
In Uganda, political unity in opposition to colonialism was facilitated by the existence of the previously British supported kabaka.
Which of the following is not a reason for the Mau Mau freedom struggle?
The British had accepted the principle of African majority rule for a self-governing Kenya
Jomo Kenyatta led the Mau Mau freedom struggle along with other African nationalists leaders in Nairobi
Protests by African business-owners, lawyers, teachers and clerks in British and French colonies began as protests for independence instead of protests for a greater share in self-government and an end to racial discrimination in economic and social life of the colonies.
He emerged as a powerful spokesman against colonialism when he publicly condemned British troops for opening fire on a peaceful protest of military veterans. He quickly realized that masses in the countryside as well as the city were mobilized by the demand for independence.
As secretary of the Kikuyu Central Association (KCA), he campaigned for the reform of the colonial system particularly with regard to land, labor and various acts of racial discrimination. The KCA called for the repeal of the Crowns Lands Ordinance of 1915, which had made all African tenants at will of the Crown
In the process of winning independence in a part of British East Africa, he made use of the language of Kiswahili in order to activate the African roots of the nation and to create a sense of national unity amongst many diverse groups in the region
Gamal Abd al-Nasir
In a show of anti-colonial sentiment, he took control of the Suez Canal from the British and reasserted Egypt's control over the important waterway. French and British troops were forced to retreat, ending the overt domination of the Egyptian economy by western Europe
As a poet and philosopher of the Negritude cultural movement which emphasized Africans equality with Europeans, he warned of the dangers of Africans becoming assimilated into French culture. However, as a politician, he was resistant to the idea of complete independence from France unlike Sekou Toure of Guinea