worked with fruit flies-genes are on chromosomes
strep bacteria injections-a transforming factor can change phenotype
Avery, McCarty, and MacLeod
first experimental evidence that DNA was the genetic material
Hershey and Chase
blended S+P stained proteins and DNA in bacteria, confirmed that DNA was genetic material
rule- each member of a species shares a common ATCG ratio: A=T, C=G
Watson and Crick
double helix model of DNA
Meselsohn and Stahl
parent and new nucleotides of same composition, semiconservative replication
Beadle and Tatum
This person (people) identified mutants that couldn't survive on minimal medium b/c they couldn't synthesize certain essential molecules from minimal ingrediants, showed that each gene encodes a particular substance ("one gene, one enzyme" concept).
from DNA to RNA language-- makes mRNA
transcribed DNA strand, the strand of DNA that the RNA polymerase uses as a guide to build complementary mRNA
the strand of DNA that is not used for transcription and is identical in sequence to mRNA, except it contains uracil instead of thymine
is a molecular structure that occurs during the transcription or replication of DNA when DNA helicase and DNA topoisomerase "unzip" the DNA double strand.
an enzyme that pries the 2 strands of DNA apart and hooks together the RNA nucleotides as they base pair along the DNA template
RNA polymerase I
Eukaryotic RNA polymerase that transcribes the genes for the large ribosomol RNAs
RNA polymerase II
recognizes an area on the promoter known as the "TATA" box, , in eukaryotes, this type of polymerase transcribes the mRNAs and small nuclear RNAs
RNA polymerase III
Transcribes tRNA and some other small RNAs. Each has a specific promoter sequence it recognizes.
A DNA sequence in eukaryotic promoters crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex
transcription initiation complex
completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase II bound to the promoter
turns transcription on high
A regulatory region a short distance upstream from the 5' end of a transcription start site that acts as the binding site for RNA polymerase. A region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds in order to initiate transcription.
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
sequence of a eukaryotic gene's DNA that is not translated into a protein
(small nuclear ribonucleoproteins) composed of RNA and protein molecules, recognize the splice sites, join with additional proteins to form a spliceseome
A complex assembly that interacts with the ends of an RNA intron in splicing RNA, releasing the intron and joining the two adjacent exons.
A sequence of three bases of a tRNA molecule that pairs with the complementary three-nucleotide codon of an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis.
aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
An enzyme that catalyzes attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA.
(acceptor) site in the ribosome where tRNA brings in an amino acid
(peptide) site in the ribosome where peptide bonds are formed between adjoining amino acids on a growing polypeptide chain
One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. This site is the place where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome.
A sequence of about 20 amino acids at or near the leading (amino) end of a polypeptide that targets it to the endoplasmic reticulum or other organelles in a eukaryotic cell