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terms to know for the EOC

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

FDR's attempt to assist economically strained farmers by raising crop prices and lowering production.

Armstrong, Louis

Trumpet-playing Jazz Musician of the 1920's.

Automobiles

Turn of the century transportation innovation that was improved upon by Henry Ford in the 1920's. Allowed American society more mobility.

Black Thursday

Refers to the day that the Wall Street Stock Market crashed on October 1929.

Bootleggers

Smuggled illegal alcohol during Prohibition. 1919-1933

Hemingway, Ernest

American whose work became famous after his experiences in World War I. Author of "For Whom The Bell Toll" and "A Farewell To Arms", among others.

Hoovervilles

Shantytowns built during the Depression by the homeless

Hughes, Langston

Harlem Renaissance poet; his 1920s poems described life for African Americans.

Hurston, Zora Neal

African-American folklorist and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance.

Installment Plan

A credit system by which payment for items are made over a fixed period of time (i.e. stocks).

Jazz

A music genre that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African-American communities in the South.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation was a part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal legislation that insured bank deposits up to $2500.

Fireside Chats

Franklin Delano Roosevelt's effective use of the radio to explain his New Deal plans.

F. Scott Fitzgerald

1920's American author of "The Great Gatsby".

Return to Normalacy

Political promise of President Harding to the American people after World War I.

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano

Only person elected to 4 terms as U.S. President by a coalition of blacks,unions,urban areas,farmers and the south. Famous quote- "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself."

Rugged individualism

This is the idea that people should be able to succeed through their own efforts. When the Great Depression struck America, President Hoover's philosophy was the popular notion of rugged individualism. Hoover thought that the government's role in the Great Depression should not be to hand out direct relief to the people, but to foster cooperation between competing business groups and interests in society.

Ruth, Babe

A baseball player who gained fame for his career home run record(714); known as the "Sultan of Swat" and "The Babe;" viewed as an American hero in the 1920s and 1930s. He was one of the first five baseball players voted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York.

Sanger, Margaret

Trained as a nurse, she championed woman's right to birth control and family planning. She opened the nation 's first birth control clinic in New York. In 1921 she established the American Birth Control League which is a predecessor to the modern Planned Parenthood Federation.

Public Works Administration (PWA)

Part of Franklin Roosevelt's 1933 New Deal legislation, it created jobs on government sponsored projects.

Radio

The most powerful communications tool to emerge in the 1920's; by 1930 40% of Americans owned a radio.

Deficit spending

Governmental policy of spending funds which don't actually exist because the budget is "in the red" or facing a deficit.

Direct Relief

Tangible aid for the needy such as monetary help or food and clothing.

Du Bois, W.E.B.

Critical of Booker T. Washington's policies since he believed that a liberal arts education, not an education in a trade, was key to the success of African Americans, Author of "Souls of Black folks"

Great Depression

1929-1941- Major worldwide economic downturn caused by the overproduction in agriculture, protective tariffs, easy credit (buying on margin), uneven distribution of income. Featured massive unemployment, business and banking failures, mortgage foreclosures.

Harlem Renaissance

Explosion of African American culture in the 1920's.

Hawley-Smoot Tariff

Highest US tariff to date, reaction to the Great Depression, made conditions worse.

Breadlines

a place where food is offered to the hungry for free or at a reasonably low price.

Flappers

Women who challenged the traditional role of women in the 1920s in dress and behavior. Influenced by the culture reflected in popular magazines.

Fundamentalism

A belief in the literal belief in the words of the bible. Amy Lee Semple and Billy McPherson were leaders of this religious revival.

Garvey, Marcus

Haitian born black nationalist that encouraged a "Back to Africa" Movement.

Buying on Margin

Borrowing money from a stock broker to purchase stock. You can think of it as a loan from your brokerage.

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

a public work relief program for unemployed men, providing vocational training through the performance of useful work related to conservation and development of natural resources in the United States.

Father Charles Coughlin

He was one of the first political leaders to use radio to reach a mass audience, as more than forty million tuned to his weekly broadcasts during the 1930s. Early in his career he was a vocal supporter of Franklin D. Roosevelt and his early New Deal proposals, before later becoming a harsh critic of Roosevelt.

Scopes Trial

1925 Tennessee court case that pitted Fundamentalists religious beliefs regarding the origins of man with Darwin's theory of Evolution.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

A New Deal agency created in 1934 that regulates the stock market and enforces laws regulating the sale of stocks and bonds.

Silent and "talkies" films

The first movies were without sound; The first silent movie was The Great Train Robbery and was released in 1903.; The first movie with sound was the "Jazz Singer".

Social Security Act

Permanent New Deal entitlement program to provide social insurance to retirees, unemployed, the disabled, and families with dependent children, paid for by a tax on employees and employers.

New Deal, The

FDR's program to bring America out of the Great Depression.Variety of legislation that came to be known as alphabet soup government. Example: AAA, CCC, PWA, WPA, NIRA, NRA, FDIC, TVA.

Overproduction

One of the reasons cited as a cause for the Great Depression.

Perkins, Frances

A strong advocate for unemployment insurance when there was none; FDR's Secretary of Labor in 1933; first woman to serve in a cabinet position; Responsible for implementing New Deal labor legislation, particularly the Fair Labor Standards Act.

The Jazz Singer

The first motion picture with sound. Released in 1927.

United Negro Improvement Association

Founded by Marcus Garvey in 1914, it called for African Americans to build their own society separate from white society.

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

An agency established as part of the Second New Deal that provided the unemployed with jobs in construction, garment making, teaching, the arts, and other fields.

Mechanization

The replacement or enhancement of human effort by machinery.

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)

In an effort to "prime the pump" of industry, this FDR New Deal initiative was intended to spark a rebirth of Industrial activity in Depression era United States.

National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)

Defined unfair labor practices and established the National Labor Relations Board to settle disputes between employees and employers.

Soup Kitchens

A place where free or low-cost food is served to the needy.

Speakeasies

Underground alcohol drinking establishments that operated during Prohibition period in American history.

Speculation

Involvement in risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick profit.

Sunday, Billy

William Ashley Sunday, i.e. "Billy", was a popular fundamentalist preacher from the 1890's to his death in 1935. His flamboyant style and energetic Christian message called for a puritanical morality that denounced alcohol consumption and sciene, among other things.

Teapot Dome Scandal

The scandal involved the oil industry's bribery of Harding's cabinet member, Albert Fall, in order to drill for oil in public lands that had been set aside in Teapot Dome, Wyoming. Albert Fall was the first sitting cabinet member to be convicted of a felony.

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

A federal established in 1933 to construct dams and power plants in the Tennessee Valley region to generate electricity as well as to prevent floods.

Easy credit

Allowed consumers to purchase goods without adequate financial support. It occurred during the 1920's and served as a cause of the crash of the Stock Market in 1929.

Fair Labor Standards

Passed in 1938 to establish a minimum wage of 25 cent per hour and a maximum of 44 hours per week. Children under the age of 16 were banned from factory work.

Fall, Albert

Secretary of Interior for President Harding and guilty in the Teapot Dome Scandal.

Laissez-Faire

the policy of non-interference by the Federal Government towards "Big Business."

Lewis, Sinclair

1920s American author of "Main Street" and "Babbitt" , a writer of "The Lost Generation."

Lindbergh, Charles

Aviator who flew an airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, across the Atlantic Ocean in the first non stop flight from New York to Paris in 1927.

Long, Huey P.

1932 Senator for Louisiana;Known as the "Kingfisher," he retained near dictatorial control of Louisiana state affairs while in 1933 he embarked on a campaign to gain national power. Long at first supported FDR's New Deal, but he formulated his own plan called Share the Wealth which appealed to economically challenged. Long was assassinated in 1935.

Lost Generation

Young postwar American writers and intellectuals believed that materialism was overshadowing personal fulfillment. Writers such as Ernest Hemingway, F Scott Fitzgerald, and H.L Mencken, felt disillusioned with society after their experiences during World War I

Market/advertising

After World War I, America became a mass consumption economy because, whether rich or poor, Americans began to purchase goods for need and pleasure. Due to print and radio advertising, material consumption became a dominant culture ideal and was the advent of installment buying, i.e. "buy now, pay later" philosophy, that quickly spread to items such as radios, sewing ,machines, and refrigerators.

McPherson, Aimee Semple

A Los Angeles based Christian Fundamentalist radio evangelist who preached to migrant workers in the 1920s.

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