Micro Ch.5 Microbial Metabolism

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MCB2004 Oriorden Spring 2013 Microbiology with Diseases by Body System 3rd Ed. Robert W. Bauman

What is the clinical term for double vision?

diplopia

-The collection of controlled biochemical reactions that takes place within the microbe.

microbial metabolism

Microbial metabolism- the collection _______________ biochemal reactions that takes place within the microbe.

controlled

Microbial metabolism-the collection of controlled biochemical reactions that takesplace within the __________.

microbe

What is the ultimate function of an organisms metabolism?

To reproduce the organism

Metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements. Statement 1: Every cells acquires _____________, which are the chemicals necessary for metabolism.

nutrients

Metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements. Statement 1: Every cells acquires nutrients, which are the ____________ necessary for metabolism.

chemicals

According to the eight statements that guide the metabolic processes, every cell acquires what chemicals, that are necessary for metabolism?

nutrients

Metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements. Statement 2: Metabolism requires energy from what two things?

light; or from the catabolism (breaking down) of acquired nutrients.

Metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements. Statement 3: Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of _______________ ________________ a.k.a. ATP.

adenosine triphosphate

According to the eight statements that guide the metabolic processes, ______________ is stored in the chemical bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

energy

According to the eight statements that guide the metabolic processes, using enzymes, cells catabolize nutrient molecules to form elementary building blocks called _________ __________.

precurser metabolites

Metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements. Statement 4: Using nutrients, cells catabolize enzymatic molecules to form elementary building blocks called precurser metabolites. True/False?

False! Using enzymes (not nutrients), cells catabolize nutrient (not enzymatic) molecules to form elementary building blocks called precurser metabolites.

According to the eight statements that guide the metabolic processes, using the building block precurser metabolites, energy from ATP, and other enzymes, cells construct larger building blocks in _____________(______________) reactions.

anabolic (biosynthetic)

Which of the following statements are incorrect in regards to the metabolic processes?
-Cells typically reproduce once they have tripled in size.
-Every cell acquires nutrients , which are the chemicals necessary for metabolism.
-Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of ATP.

Cells typically reproduce once they have doubled (not tripled) in size.

Metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements. Statement 6: Cells use enzymes and additional energy from ATP to anabolically link building blocks together to form macromolecules in __________________ reactions.

polymerization

According to the eight statements that guide the metabolic processes, cells use enzymes and additional energy from ATP to anabolically link building blocks together to form ________________ in polymerization reactions.

macromolecules

Metabolic processes are guided by eight elementary statements. Statement 7: Cells grow by assembling macromolecules into cellular structures such as ______________, membranes, and cell walls.

ribosomes

According to the eight statements that guide the metabolic processes, Cells typically _____________once they have doubled in size.

reproduce

Organic ______________called enzymes, make metabolism possible.

catalysts

Metabolism can be divided into what two major classes of reactions?

catabolism and anabolism

-all of the chemical in an organism

metabolism

Metabolism, which is all of the chemical reactions in an organism, can be divided into two major classes of reactions: catabolism and anabolism. A series of such reactions is called a _____________.

pathway

Cells have __________pathways which break larger molecules into smaller products (a.k.a. breaking down), and ___________pathways which synthesize large molecule from the smaller products of catabolism. (building up)

catabolic;anabolic

When catabolic pathways break down large molecules they release energy. Therefore catabolic pathways are __________.

exergonic

When catabolic pathways break down large molecules they release energy, cells store some of this released energy energy in the __________of ATP, though much of the energy is lost as ___________.

bonds;heat

Fill in the blanks below, being sure to refer to the exergonic pathways of catabolism. When catabolic pathways break down large molecules, they release energy. ____________store some of this released energy in the bonds of ATP, though ______of the energy is lost as heat. Another result of the breakdown of large molecules by cataboic pathways is the production of numerous smaller molecules, some of which are ______________ ____________ of anabolism.

cells;much;precurser metabolites

-Any of 12 molecules typically generated by metabolic pathway and essential to the synthesis of organic macromolecules in cells.

precurser metabolite

Some organisms such as ____________ __________ can synthesize everything in their cells just from precurser metabolites;other organisms muct acquire some anabolic building blocks from outside their cells as _______________.

Escherichia coli (E. Coli);nutrients

Catabolic pathways, but not necessarily individual catabolic reactions, produce __________,or ___________, or both.

ATP;metabolites

The breakdown of lipids into glycerol and fatty acids is an example of what type of pathway?

catabolic pathway

Anabolic pathways are functionally the opposite of catabolic pathways in that they synthesize ____________ and _________ __________.

macromolecules;cellular structures

Because building anything requires energy, anabolic pathways are __________,that is, they require more energy than they release.

endergonic

Select the correct sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration.
-glycolysis → citric acid cycle → acetyl CoA → electron transport chain
-glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain
-acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain → glycolysis
-electron transport chain → citric acid cycle → glycolysis → acetyl CoA
-citric acid cycle → electron transport chain → glycolysis → acetyl CoA

glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain
- Glycolysis produces pyruvic acid, which enters the mitochondrion. There, it is converted to acetyl CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle. In bacteria, pyruvic acid is converted to acetyl CoA in the cytoplasm. Electron carriers bring electrons from the first three steps to the electron transport chain, and ATP is made.

What is the correct general equation for cellular respiration?
-C6H12O6 + 6 CO2 → 6 O2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy
-6 O2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy → C6H12O6 + 6 CO2
-C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy
-6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
-C6H12O6 + 6 H2O → 6 CO2 + 6 O2 + ATP energy

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy
Cellular respiration extracts energy from glucose (C6H12O6) to produce smaller energy packets (ATP).

Which of the following processes does not take place in the cytoplasm of a bacterial cell?
-The energy investment phase
-glycolysis
-citric acid cycle
-ATP production by ATP synthase
-acetyl CoA formation

ATP production by ATP synthase

In what organelle of a eukaryote would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?
-Golgi apparatus
-nucleus
-mitochondrion
-lysosome
-chloroplast

mitochondrion

Which statement describes glycolysis?
-Glycolysis converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA.
-Glycolysis splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
-Glycolysis joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose.
-Glycolysis uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
-Glycolysis results in the production of carbon dioxide.

Glycolysis splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
In glycolysis, glucose is split into two molecules of pyruvic acid. The released energy is stored in ATP and the electron carrier NADH.

Which statement describes the citric acid cycle?
-The citric acid cycle converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA.
-The citric acid cycle produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion of eukaryotes, but takes place in the cytoplasm of bacteria.
-The citric acid cycle uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
-The citric acid cycle splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
-The citric acid cycle joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose.

...

Which statement describes the electron transport chain?
-Electron transport chain converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA.
-This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide.
-The electron transport chain splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each molecule of glucose.
-The electron transport chain uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
-The electron transport chain joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose.

The electron transport chain uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
- In the electron transport chain, electrons move from one electron carrier to another, eventually reaching oxygen. The released energy is used to make many molecules of ATP.

Which of the following equations represents photosynthesis?
-C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
-6CO2 + 6O2 → C6H12O6 + 6H2O
-6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
-6H2O + 6O2 → C6H12O6 + 6CO2
-C6H12O6 + 6CO2 → 6O2 + 6H2O

6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
Photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide and water for the production of sugar and oxygen.

In which of the following organelles does photosynthesis take place?
-Ribosome
-Central vacuole
-Mitochondrion
-Nucleus
-Chloroplast

Chloroplast
-Chloroplasts use energy from light to transform carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen.

What connects the two photosystems in the light reactions?
-Chlorophyll
-A thylakoid
-An electron transport chain
-The Calvin cycle
-A chain of glucose molecules

An electron transport chain

What two molecules are produced by the light reactions and used to power the Calvin cycle?
-ATP and NADPH
-C6H12O6 and O2
-G3P and H2O
-C6H12O6 and RuBP
-CO2 and O2

ATP and NADPH

What provides electrons for the light reactions?
-H2O
-CO2
-The Calvin cycle
-O2
-Light

H2O

What provides the carbon atoms that are incorporated into sugar molecules in the Calvin cycle?
-G3P (C3H6O3)
-RuBP
-Carbon dioxide (CO2)
-Glucose (C6H12O6)
-Sucrose (C12H22O11)

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

What transports electrons from the light reactions to the Calvin cycle?
-NADH
-An electron transport chain
-NADPH
-Chlorophyll
-FADH2

NADPH

The light reactions take place in the _________ and the Calvin cycle takes place in the _________.
-thylakoids; stroma
-mitochondria; chloroplasts
-chloroplasts; mitochondria
-stroma; thylakoids
-inner membrane; outer membrane

thylakoids; stroma
-Within the chloroplast, the light reactions take place in the flattened sacs called thylakoids and the Calvin cycle takes place in the thick fluid called the stroma.

Which of these is NOT true of an enzyme?
-An enzyme is usually a protein.
-The names of most enzymes end in "-ase."
-An enzyme raises the activation energy of a reaction.
-The active site is where the substrate attaches to the enzyme.

An enzyme raises the activation energy of a reaction.

Which of the following molecules serves as the short-term recyclable energy supply for a cell?
-triglycerides
-ATP
-glucose
-phospholipids

ATP

In aerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor is __________.
-glucose
-oxygen
-ATP
-ethanol

oxygen

Catabolic reactions are chemical reactions that __________.
-release molecules of water
-involve carbon
-break large molecules apart
-consume energy

break large molecules apart

Denaturation is most often a problem with which of the following?
-nucleic acids
-proteins
-carbohydrates
-lipids

proteins

Which of the following is LEAST likely to be catabolized by microorganisms?
-lipids
-starch
-CO2
-proteins

CO2

In photosynthetic bacteria, the light-dependent reaction __________.

-involves an electron transport chain
-occurs within the chloroplast
-uses ATP and NADH
-is called the Calvin-Benson cycle

involves an electron transport chain

Which of the following is NOT TRUE of glucose?

-Glucose is a product of aerobic respiration.
-Glucose is a monosaccharide.
-Glucose can be synthesized from amino acids, glycerol, and fatty acids by some bacteria.
-Glucose is a product of the hydrolysis of starch.

Glucose is a product of aerobic respiration

The electron transport chain __________.
-produces less ATP than in glycolysis
-is located in the cytoplasmic membrane in bacteria
-is the site of fermentation
-is the location where the Krebs cycle occurs

is located in the cytoplasmic membrane in bacteria

Oxidative phosphorylation __________.
-uses energy from a proton motive force to add phosphate to ADP
-occurs in glycolysis
-uses light energy to make ATP
-involves transfer of phosphate from a phosphorylated substrate to ADP

uses energy from a proton motive force to add phosphate to ADP

A molecule that gains an electron from another molecule will experience ____________________ in its overall electrical charge, and becomes ________. .
-a reduction, reduced
-an increase, oxidized
-a reduction, oxidized
-an increase, reduced

a reduction, reduced

Hydrolysis reactions __________.
-involve removal of hydrogen from a molecule
-release water
-are used to synthesize compounds
-are catabolic

are catabolic

Deamination is __________.
-the process that bacteria use to break down proteins into amino acids
-the process used to synthesize amino acids
-the removal of an amine group from an amino acid
-a type of anabolism

the removal of an amine group from an amino acid

Glycolysis __________.
-transfers electrons from a substrate to NAD+
-yields less ATP than it uses
-uses water to break glucose into two 3-carbon molecules
-occurs in the cytoplasm of bacteria and mitochondria of eukaryotic cells

transfers electrons from a substrate to NAD+

All bacteria __________.
-possess the same metabolic enzymes
-require energy in order to survive
-carry out aerobic respiration
-All of the above are correct.

require energy in order to survive

Beta-oxidation __________.
-is a process bacteria can use to break down proteins
-is the name given to the process that occurs in the electron transport chain
-is the process used by bacteria to catabolize amino acids
-is the process used by many bacteria to catabolize fatty acids

is the process used by many bacteria to catabolize fatty acids

All of these statements are correct descriptions of bacterial metabolism EXCEPT __________.
-if two energy sources are available, cells catabolize the more energy efficient of the two
-feedback inhibition can be used to stop anabolic pathways when the product is in abundance
-metabolic processes can be isolated within certain parts of the cell, such as lysosomes
-cells often synthesize enzymes for a particular catabolic process only if the substrate for that process is available

metabolic processes can be isolated within certain parts of the cell, such as lysosomes

Which of these is NOT a product of photosynthesis in bacteria?
-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
-O2
-CO2
-glucose

CO2

The site of photosynthesis within a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell is the __________.
-chloroplast
-nucleus
-mitochondrion
-cytoplasm

chloroplast

The Calvin-Benson cycle __________.
-produces NADH for use in the electron transport chain
-produces CO2, glucose, and ATP
-utilizes NADH and ATP as energy sources
-occurs in the cytoplasm of photosynthetic bacteria

occurs in the cytoplasm of photosynthetic bacteria

Redox reactions ___________________________.
-involve the passing of electrons from one molecule to another.
-are involved only in the electron transport chain.
-involve both of the above.
-involve neither of the above.

involve the passing of electrons from one molecule to another.

When a molecule is reduced, ___________________.
-it has lost an electron.
-it has become smaller.
-its electrical charge has been reduced by the addition of an electron.
-it is called the electron donor.

its electrical charge has been reduced by the addition of an electron.

Why are redox reactions considered coupled reactions?
-Because they involve both the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain, redox reactions are said to be coupled.
-Electrons are always passed in pairs.
-Because they affect both the charge and the structure of molecules, redox reactions are said to be coupled.
-If an electron is transferred between molecules, one molecule is oxidized while the other molecule is reduced.

If an electron is transferred between molecules, one molecule is oxidized while the other molecule is reduced.

What is the term given for the energy required to convert reactants into products in a chemical reaction?
-chemical potential energy
-enzymes
-energy of activation
-electron configuration

energy of activation

Enzymes are ____________________. (can select more than one answer)
-biological catalysts.
-present in living cells.
-increases the energy of activation.
-all of the above

present in living cells.
biological catalysts

Which of the following statements regarding enzymes is false?
-Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reactions.
-Enzymes increase the total amount of product in a chemical reaction.
-The transition of reactants to products requires a certain amount of energy.
-Make it easier for cells to produce the products of various chemical reactions in the cell.

Enzymes increase the total amount of product in a chemical reaction.

Which of the following statements is the basis of the induced-fit model?
-Products dissociate rapidly from the enzyme.
-Each enzyme can react with many different substrates.
-Enzymes are left unchanged following the interaction with their substrates.
-The enzyme and substrate bind at the active site to form a perfect fit known as the enzyme-substrate complex

The enzyme and substrate bind at the active site to form a perfect fit known as the enzyme-substrate complex.

Which of the following may happen after a substrate binds at the active site?
-The enzyme may slow down the chemical reaction, decreasing the time needed for the reactants to produce the products.
-The enzyme may convert the substrate to reactants.
-The enzyme may change shape and the amino acids found in the active site may donate or receive electrons.

The enzyme may change shape and the amino acids found in the active site may donate or receive electrons.

The active site ____________________.
-is another term for "substrate."
-is where the reactants bind.
-is the term for an enzyme that has returned to its original state after a chemical reaction.
-is the compound that an enzyme reacts with during the chemical reaction.

is where the reactants bind.

Put the following enzyme reaction steps in order: 1.Binding of substrate to the active site
2.Dissociation
3.Product formation
4.Enzyme recovery
5.Formation of the enzyme-substrate complex

1, 5, 3, 2, 4

A competitive inhibitor _______________________.
-gives products the same as the intended substrate.
-speeds up catalysis of the original substrate.
-binds to the substrate.
-binds to the active site.

binds to the active site.

The term "competitive" in competitive inhibitors refers to what?
-The inhibitor and the substrate are competing for reactants.
-The inhibitor is competing with the substrate for the production to see which makes the most products.
-The inhibitor is competing with the enzyme for the substrate.
-The inhibitor and the substrate are competing for the active site of the enzyme

The inhibitor and the substrate are competing for the active site of the enzyme.

What is the outcome if the concentration of the substrate is much higher than that of the inhibitor?
-The reaction will be carried out as usual.
-The substrate will destroy the inhibitor.
-The enzyme will stop functioning.
-The reaction will slow down catalysis of the products.

The reaction will be carried out as usual.

What would happen if the concentration of substrate is low?
-The inhibitor will destroy the substrate.
-The inhibitor will successfully compete with the substrate for the active site, speeding up catalysis.
-The inhibitor will successfully compete with the substrate for the active site, slowing catalysis.
-The inhibitor will destroy the enzymes.

The inhibitor will successfully compete with the substrate for the active site, slowing catalysis.

What is relevant about sulfanilamide and PABA? (one or both answers may be correct)
-They have a similar chemical structure.
-They will bind to the same active site.

They have a similar chemical structure and they will bind to the same active site.

The term "competitive" in competitive inhibitors refers to what?
-The inhibitor is competing with the substrate for the production to see which makes the most products.
-The inhibitor and the substrate are competing for reactants.
-The inhibitor is competing with the enzyme for the substrate.
-The inhibitor and the substrate are competing for the active site of the enzyme

The inhibitor and the substrate are competing for the active site of the enzyme.

What is the outcome if the concentration of the substrate is much higher than that of the inhibitor?
-The substrate will destroy the inhibitor.
-The enzyme will stop functioning.
-The reaction will slow down catalysis of the products.
-The reaction will be carried out as usual.

The reaction will be carried out as usual.

What would happen if the concentration of substrate is low?
-The inhibitor will successfully compete with the substrate for the active site, speeding up catalysis.
-The inhibitor will destroy the substrate.
-The inhibitor will successfully compete with the substrate for the active site, slowing catalysis.
-The inhibitor will destroy the enzymes.

The inhibitor will successfully compete with the substrate for the active site, slowing catalysis.

Which of the following is a true statement regarding the HIV medication nevirapine?
-Nevirapine is the substrate of reverse transcriptase.
-Nevirapine binds to a location other than the active site.
-Nevirapine binds to the active site of reverse transcriptase.
-Nevirapine binds to the substrate of reverse transcriptase.

Nevirapine binds to a location other than the active site.

How can a noncompetitive inhibitor affect enzyme activity without binding to the active site?
-It alters the shape of the substrate, making it difficult for it to bind to the active site.
-It physically blocks the entrance to the active site.
-It binds to another location on the enzyme, altering the active site shape.
-It degrades the substrate.

It binds to another location on the enzyme, altering the active site shape.

How does concentration of the substrate affect the ability of a noncompetitive inhibitor to disrupt enzyme activity?
-High concentrations of substrate can overcome the presence of low amounts of inhibitor.
-Low concentrations of substrate can overcome the presence of low amounts of inhibitor.
-The presence of substrate in either high or low concentrations will overcome low amounts of inhibitor.
-Substrate concentration has no effect on the inhibitor, since they are not competing for the active site.

Substrate concentration has no effect on the inhibitor, since they are not competing for the active site.

Embden-Meyerhof pathway ______________. (can be more than one answer)
-is another name for glycolysis.
-is another name for the preparatory stage.
-is named after its discoverers.
-is another name for the energy-conservation stage.

is another name for glycolysis.

is named after its discoverers

Why is ATP used in the preparatory stage?
-It is needed to produce water from the energy-conserving stage.
-It is needed to reduce NAD+ to NADH.
-It makes the process of converting glucose into two 3-carbon molecules easier.
-ATP is needed to allow the cell to move toward a carbon source.

It makes the process of converting glucose into two 3-carbon molecules easier.

Which of the following are products of glycolysis? (possibly more than one answer)
-ATP
-pyruvic acid
-NADH
-NAD+
-glucose

NADH

pyruvic acid

ATP

Where does the energy come from to make ATP during glycolysis?
-NADH
-glucose
-pyruvic acid
-water

glucose

What is the net ATP produced from one molecule of glucose in glycolysis?
-one molecule
-two molecules
-four molecules
-six molecules

two molecules

Which of the following statements are true regarding the energy-investment stage?
-It can occur only in a cell with ATP to invest.
-Two molecules of ATP are used during this step.
-Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is an intermediate of this stage.
-all of the above
-none of the above

all of the above

What is the fate of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) in glycolysis?
-It is directly involved with the reduction of NAD+ to NADH.
-It is converted to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate.
-It phosphorylates ADP to ATP.
-It is converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P).

It is converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P).

The process of moving a phosphate from metabolic products to ADP to form ATP is called __________.
-substrate-level phosphorylation.
-oxidative phosphorylation.
-glycolysis.
-reduction.

substrate-level phosphorylation.

What molecule is fed directly into the energy conservation stage of glycolysis?
-NAD+
-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
-pyruvic acid
-dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)
-glucose
-1,3-bisphosphoglycerate acid

glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

Which of the following are products remaining after glycolysis has occurred for a single molecule of glucose? (possibly more than one answer)
-two NAD+
-two NADH
-four total ATP
-four net ATP
-two molecules of pyruvic acid

two molecules of pyruvic acid

four total ATP

two NADH

Another name for the Krebs cycle is ____________.
-the acetyl CoA cycle.
-the citric acid cycle.
-the transition cycle.
-the bridge cycle.

the citric acid cycle

The overall purpose of the Krebs cycle is ________.
-to convert puryvic acid into acetyl CoA.
-to produce molecules of the energy carrier GTP.
-to produce carbon dioxide and water.
-to extract the energy from pyruvate molecules enzymatically

to extract the energy from pyruvate molecules enzymatically

Which of the following is an electron carrier used in the Krebs cycle? (possibly more than one answer)
-GTP
-NADH
-FADH2
-all of the above
-none of the above

NADH

FADH2

Based on the animation, how many ATP is one NADH equal to?
one
two
three
four
five

three

What occurs at the transition step?
-formation of ATP and NADH
-decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA
-formation of GTP from GDP and inorganic phosphate
-conversion of citric acid to isocitric acid

decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA

Including the transition step, how many carbon dioxide molecules are produced in the Krebs cycle from the 3-carbon compound pyruvic acid?

one
two
three
four

three

Which step of the Krebs cycle involves GTP?
-the third step
-the fourth step
-the seventh step
-the first step
-the fifth step

the fifth step

Which step involves the reduction of FAD+ to FADH?
the third step
the third step
the second step
the fifth step
the sixth step

the sixth step

NADH is converted to ATP in a process known as ___________________.

oxidative phosphorylation
reduction
oxidation
decarboxylation

oxidative phosphorylation

Which of the following steps does NOT result in the production of available free energy?
the third step
the eighth step
the fifth step
the seventh step
the fourth step

seventh step

The primary role of electron transport chains in many organisms is to ___________________.
-pump hydrogen ions outside of a membrane.
-transfer electrons along a cell membrane.
-generate usable energy in the form of ATP.
-allow water to flow from regions of high concentrations to low concentrations

generate usable energy in the form of ATP.

Chemiosmosis ____________________________.
-occurs along the cell membrane of eukaryotes.
-is the process of using a proton gradient to generate ATP.
-is the name given to membrane-bound proteins involved in electron transport.
-is the process of using an electron gradient to produce ATP.

is the process of using a proton gradient to generate ATP

How do the protons flow in an electron transport system in a prokaryote?

-from regions of high concentration to low concentrations along a mitochondrial membrane
-from regions of high concentration to low concentrations along a cell membrane
-from regions of low concentration to high concentrations along a cell membrane
-from regions of low concentration to high concentrations along a mitochondrial membrane

from regions of high concentration to low concentrations along a cell membrane

Which compound provides the electrons at the start of the electron transport system in?

NADH
O2
H2O
ATP

NADH

What is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain of aerobic bacteria?
water
FADH2
oxygen
FMNH2
NADH

oxygen

Small, lipid-soluble, nonprotein electron carriers are ___________.
flavoproteins.
cytochromes.
ATP synthase.
ubiquinones.

ubiquinones

Membrane-bound proteins involved in the electron transport chain that contain a heme group are termed _____________________.
ubiquinones.
ATP synthases.
flavoproteins.
cytochromes.

cytochromes

Which of the following would be a final electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration?(possibly more than one answer)
sulfate ion
nitrate ion
water
oxygen
ATP

nitrate ion

sulfate ion

Put the following steps of the electron transport system in order, starting with NADH: Electrons to coenzyme Q Electrons to the cytochrome complexes Electrons to flavoprotein Electrons to carbonate ion
3, 2, 1, 4
3, 1, 2, 4
4, 3, 1, 2
1, 2, 3, 4

3, 1, 2, 4

Uncoupling proteins _______________________.

-prevent the ETC from reducing oxygen.
-allow the electron transport system to be used for tasks other than ATP production.
-synthesize ATP.
-pass electrons to the final electron acceptor.

allow the electron transport system to be used for tasks other than ATP production

Cyanide poisoning _______________________.(may be more than one answer)
-allows for ATP production without using oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor.
-diverts the energy from the proton gradient to other cell functions.
-acts in a manner similar to oxygen deprivation.
-blocks cytochrome a3.

acts in a manner similar to oxygen deprivation.

blocks cytochrome a3.

What effect does oxygen deprivation have on an aerobic cell?

-keeps cytochrome a3 in the reduced state
-an increase in the amount of heat generated by the ETC
-increases the amount of thermogenin
-makes the cell unable to maintain a proton gradient

makes the cell unable to maintain a proton gradient

Thermogenin _______________________.(may be more than one answer)
-acts in a manner similar to oxygen deprivation.
-is found in certain mammalian fat cells.
-is an example of a protein uncoupler.
-is found in many bacterial cells.

is an example of a protein uncoupler.

is found in certain mammalian fat cells.

What is the primary function of fermentation?
-It is a metabolic pathway used to produce organic acids, like lactic acid.
-It is an alternative way for a cell to produce carbon dioxide.
-It provides the cell with a mechanism to regenerate the oxidized form of electron carriers, allowing glycolysis to continue.
-It enables the electron transport chain to continue functioning in the absence of oxygen.

It provides the cell with a mechanism to regenerate the oxidized form of electron carriers, allowing glycolysis to continue

During fermentation, which compound is the substrate to be reduced with the electrons from NADH?
glucose
pyruvic acid
oxygen
ATP

pyruvic acid

Which of the following is a product of alcohol fermentation?(possibly more than one answer)
carbon dioxide
ethanol
NAD+
#2 and #3
all of the above

all of the above

What is the function of NADH in fermentation?

-NADH provides the electrons to reduce pyruvic acid to either an organic acid or ethanol.
-NADH takes electrons to the electron transport chain.
-NADH is reduced so it can return to glycolysis to pick up more electrons.
-NADH is converted to organic acids like lactic acid.

NADH provides the electrons to reduce pyruvic acid to either an organic acid or ethanol.

Which of the following is NOT an organic acid produced by the process of fermentation?
butyric acid
lactic acid
pyruvic acid
succinic acid
formic acid

pyruvic acid

Chloroplasts found in eukaryotes are likely evolved from ingested ___________________________.

-thylakoids.
-photosynthetic eukaryotes.
-chlorophyll.
-cyanobacteria.

cyanobacteria.

The function of the chlorophyll is _______________.

-to produce ATP by fusing ADP and an inorganic phosphate.
-to harvest the energy from light to power photosynthesis.
-to capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
-to provide a barrier that enables a proton gradient to form.

to harvest the energy from light to power photosynthesis

For what is the ATP produced during photosynthesis primarily used?
-to capture energy from sunlight
-to split water
-to pass electrons
-to help make glucose in the Calvin-Benson cycle

to help make glucose in the Calvin-Benson cycle

What does the term "cyclic" refer to in cyclic photophosphorylation?

-the cycle of oxidizing water to make molecular oxygen
-the cyclic motion of ATP synthase
-the return of excited electrons back to photosystem I
-the cycle of ATP production and ATP utilization

the return of excited electrons back to photosystem I

The role of the cytochrome proteins is ___________________________________-To harvest light energy from the sun to energize electrons.
-to pass electrons along the thylakoid membrane, creating a proton gradient.
-to fuse ADP to an inorganic phosphate to yield ATP.
-to split water into hydrogen ions and molecular oxygen.

to pass electrons along the thylakoid membrane, creating a proton gradient.

Where would you find the highest concentration of hydrogen ions?
-in the cytoplasm
-in the thylakoid space
-outside the cell
-in the thylakoid membrane
-in the cytochromes

in the thylakoid space

The source of electrons is ________________________.
-photosystem I.
-carbon dioxide.
-oxygen.
-ATP.
-NADPH.

photosystem I.

Which of the following is not involved in cyclic photophosphorylation?

cytochromes
chlorophyll
NADPH
water

NADPH

Which photosystem does noncyclic photophosphorylation utilize?

photosystem I
photosystem II
both photosystem I and II
neither photosystem I or II

both photosystem I and II

What is the source of electrons in noncyclic photophosphorylation?

photosystem I
oxygen
water
NADPH
ATP

water

What are the products of noncyclic photophosphorylation?
oxygen
ATP
NADPH
all of the above
none of the above

all of the above

Another term for the Calvin Benson Cycle is _____________________________.

the light-independent reactions.
the dark reactions.
both of the above.
neither of the above

both of the above.

What is the end result of the Calvin-Benson cycle?

the production of carbon dioxide
the production of sugars and water
the generation of NADPH
the production of ATP

the production of sugars and water

Most of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate molecules produced in the Calvin Benson cycle __________________________.

-are used in the production of sugar.
-are used to regenerate NADP+.
-are used to regenerate ribulose bisphosphate.
-are broken down to yield ATP.

are used to regenerate ribulose bisphosphate.

How many ATPs are required to produce one molecule of glucose?

9
18
6
36

18

How many cycles of the Calvin-Benson cycle are required to produce 1 molecule of glucose?

1
2
3
6

2

Amino acids from protein degradation can be used directly in which metabolic process(es)?

-glycolysis
-Krebs cycle
-oxidative phosphorylation
-Krebs cycle AND glycolysis
-fermentation

Krebs cycle AND glycolysis

Which macromolecule can be used directly by glycolysis?

lipids
proteins
nucleic acids
carbohydrates
all of the above
none of the above

all of the above

Which of the following processes is considered solely anabolic?

-pentose phosphate pathway
-fermentation
-Krebs cycle
-photosynthesis
-oxidative phosphorylation

photosynthesis

Gluconeogenesis is _________________________.

nvolved in lipid synthesis.

a catabolic pathway.

a process that produces pyruvic acid.

an anabolic pathway

an anabolic pathway.

Which of the following statements regarding cell metabolism is true?

-Water from photosynthesis can be used in oxidative phosphorylation.
-Oxygen produce from photosynthesis can be used in oxidative phosphorylation.
-Photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation have no interaction.
-Carbon dioxide from photosynthesis is used in the Krebs cycle.

Oxygen produce from photosynthesis can be used in oxidative phosphorylation.

__________ is a cellular process that attaches a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate using a high-energy bond.

Catabolism
Metabolism
Beta-oxidation
Phosphorylation

Phosphorylation

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