habitual and stereotyed roles behaviros and games people adopt.
The phobic layer
avoidance behavior due to fear, vulnerability, and pain.
The impasse layer
a stage of helplessness, "stuckness" and confusion about how to proceed.
The implosive layer
the first major spontaneous insight stage. The individual recognizes aspects of self-limitation and unfinished business from the past. Defenses are lowered, ecrativity emerges, and progress towards integration occurs.
The explosive layer
The indivdual experiences authentic integration and wholeness, is more capable of feeling and expressing emotion; and can move with more energy towards self-actualiztion.
Body-boundaries (contact boundaries)
Are those that may restrict sensation or place them off-limits.
Value-Boundaries (contact boundaries)
refers to values we hold that we are resistant to change. Boundaries may be challenged, possibly changed, or possibly reinforced.
Familarity boundaries (contact boundaries)
refers to events that are often repeated but may not be thought about or challenged.
Expressive-boundaries (contact boundaries)
are learned at an every early age. We learn not to yell, not to whine, not to touch, and so forth.
Introjectoin (contact boundary disturbances)
Refers to swallowing whole or acceting others' without reviewing them. "children often take their parents opinions as fact rather than as values. As we grow we develop our own idea, vaules, and opionions
Projection (contact boundary disturbances)
Refers to the dismissing or disowning of aspects of ourselves by assigning them to others. Often feelings of guilt or anger may lead indivduals to place blame onto others.
Retroflection (contact boundary disturbances)
consists of doing to ourselves what we want to do to soemone else, or it can refer to doing things of ourselves that we want others to do for use. "I can do it myself" when we want other to help us.
Deflection(contact boundary disturbances)
refers to varying degress of avoidance of contact. The person who does not get to the point, who is overly polite, or talks constantly
Confluence (contact boundary disturbances)
occurs when the boundary between one's self and other are muted or lessened. In realtionship there may be a perception that both individuals have the same feelings and thoughs, when in fact the individuals have become less aware of their own feelings and vlaues.
Refers to feelings from the past that have beeen unexpressed but are dealt with in the presents. The feelings may be of anger, hatred, guilt, fear, and so forth, or they may be memories or fantassies that are still within the individuals.
cyclical approach to assessments have five phases
sensation/awareness, mobilization, contact, resolution/ closure and withdrawal
Sensation/awareness (phase 1)
involes taking in experience through the senses.
Mobilization (phase 2)
refers to moving from awareness to forming a desire or want. People with phobias and other anxieties may avoid action or events rather than move toward an action.
Contact (phase 3)
produces emotional arousal and implies contact with self and other. individual who functions histrionically may be very emotional but may not be aware of his feelings or be able to relate well emotionally to others.
resolution/closure (phase 4)
takes place as individuals disengages from an expericence. (posttraumatic stress disorders have difficulty moving from traumatic event) Therapists help such clients acknowledge that they must resolve the problem and find ways to express feelings about the problem to develop closure.
Withdrawal (phase 5)
takes place as the cycle draws to a close and moves toward other contact experiences.
That part of a field that stands out in good contour clearly from the ground.
The background that contrasts with the figure with in the perceptions of a field.
the patient may act out a pervious experience or a characteristic. If the patients says he feels like a rat for cheating on his wife, the therapist may ask him to act like a rat.
A technique developed by gestalt therapists and adapted by other therorist in which the patient is asked to play different roles in two chairs, dialogues between different aspects of the client can then take place.
The five layers of neurosis are
Phony layer, phobic layer, impasse layer, Impasse layer, The explosive layer.
Gestalt therapy was created by
Frita and laura Perls
Gestalt therapy emphasis
awareness and process in the immediate experience of the client, exploration of emerging physical and emotional sensation in the present moment in an integral aspect of this insight-oriented therapy.
Wholesness, integration, and balnce ine various aspects of our being. Accepting individual responsibility for achieveing wholeness is a value conveyed to the client
Limitation of Gestalt therapy
Clients can are sometimes propeleed into their emotional experience fast they can comfortably torlerate. May over-emphasize emotion while neglecting cognition. Insight alone may not adequately facilitate desired change. May inappropriate for certain cultrual groups (thosse that do not value strong emtional express.