Chapter 22 Questions "The New Era"

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The 1920s

Why are the 1920s called the "New Era"?

- New forms of economic organization
- New "American" culture distinguished
- New approaches to public policy

What were the reasons the US experienced an economic boom in the 1920s?

- European economy was weak
- New technologies

How did the industries of the 1920s improve efficiency in production?

Through use of the assembly line

How did Alfred P. Sloan develop a modern administrative system for the General Motors Company?

...

How did US industrial leaders attempt to curb competition? What did they fear?

With consolidation and cooperation through trade associations due to a fear of overproduction and recessions due to rapid expansion

How did industry try to prevent periodic economic collapses in the 1920s?

...

What were the problems with wealth distribution, purchasing power and wages in the 1920s?

- Prosperity was not universal
- 40% of American families were poor
- Wages rose but standard of living remained at the minimum level

What was "welfare capitalism"?

Government assistance necessary to stop labor union participation. Workers were offered shorter working weeks, higher wages (but barely considerable), paid vacations, and retirement pensions.

Were African Americans permitted to join unions associated with the American Federation of Labor?

No

Which ethnic group experiencd riots and attempts at exclusion in California in the late 1920s and early 1930s?

Filipino immigrants

What were the results of the large growth in agricultural production?

- hybrid corn
- pestisides
- demand did NOT increase as fast as production
- surpluses
- decline in food prices
- decrease in farmers' incomes
- loss of farm ownership by most farmers

What did "parity", the price raising scheme that dominated the agrarian sector, require?

prices for agricultural goods to be based on average price of crops before WWI

What were the terms of the proposed McNary-Haugen Bill? How would the government help farmers achieve parity?

The government would help farmers achieve parity by paying farmers not to grow in excess of demand and the government would lease farmers' land.

What did the term "consumer society" mean and why was this term used for the United States during the 1920s?

America is a "consumer society" because Americans bought more pleasurable items than items they needed.

What were the ideas of Bruce Barton in "The Man Nobody Knows"?

Jesus was a "super salesman"

What was the most important communications vehicle new to the 1920s?

the radio

What was the first feature-length film to feature "talkie" sound?

The Jazz Singer

What did theological modernists teach their followers about interpreting the Bible literally?

Modernists tought the theory of evolution to their students. This was frowned upon by fundamentalists.

What were the characteristics of employed women in the 1920s?

- Employed women worked "pink collar" jobs mostly.
- There was about 15% of women who were employed.
- They were generally underpaid.

What results did effect the declining birth rate, the introduction of labor-saving devices, and the greater acceptability of liberated life styles of the 1920s have on women?

- manifest in hair, dress, speech, and behavior
- vulnerability
- divorce and frustration

What cause did Alice Paul champion?

Womens' rights/ equality for women

What was the Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921 and why did the passage of this act represent a significant legislative triumph for feminist activities?

Women could now recieve federal funds for prenatal care and had access to child health care programs

What were some of the changes in the way youths identified themselves after World War I?

Students began to think of themselves in relation with their peers rather than their families.

What was seen as the key to financial success by the 1920s?

...

What did the artists and intellectuals of the "lost generation" criticize?

They criticized democracy, fundamentalists, and material success.

Who were in the group called the "debunkers" and why did they ridicule American society?

H.L. Mencken, Sinclair Lewis, and F. Scott Fitzgerald; They ridiculed belief in democracy, fundamentalist religion, and material success because they

What themes did the "disenchanted" intellectuals of the 1920s emphasize?

...

Who wrote the words, "I am a Negro --- and beautiful"?

Langston Hughes

What movements resulted from the traditional backlash against the secular culture of the "New Era"?

Political ideas of black nationalism

What were some of the results of the "noble experiment" of prohibition?

- ratification of the 18th Amendment
- reduction of drinking in certain parts of the country, especially among rural Protestant Americans
- Volstead Act
- rise of organized crime (Ex.) speakeasies

From what area(s) did the National Origins Act of 1924 ban immigration entirely?

East Asia

What were the arguments of the 1920s proponents of legislation to restrict immigration?

...

Which groups and what ideas did the revived KKK of the 1920s oppose?

The KKK opposed blacks, Catholics, Jews, foreigners, and suspected Communists.

What were the results of the Scopes "Monkey" trial? How could the modernists consider that they had won a victory?

Scopes was convicted but then his conviction was overturned after being forced to admit that their was no single interpreatation of Scripture.

Between what two elements of the Democratic party was there tension during the 1920s?

...

What were the weaknesses of President Warren G. Harding?

...

What were some of the similarities between Presidents Coolidge and Harding?

They were both very passive Republicans who were very unfamiliar with government duties.

Did Coolidge believe the government should involve itself with the life of the nation?

...

What economic policies did the Republican administrators of the 1920s pursue?

...

Which two administrative figures were most active in using government policy to help business and industry in the 1920s?

...

What were some of Hoover's ideas about business before his election in 1928?

He believed in trade associations and associationalism.

What major event that ended the "New Era" happened less than one year after Hoover's inauguration?

The stock market crash in October 1929

Which European country was required to pay the reparations bill for the cost of World War I?

Germany

According to Henry Cabot Lodge, how should the US use its power internationally?

...

What was the goal of the US at the Washington Conference of 1921?

...

What were the economic results of the Dawes Plan of 1924?

Loans to Germany, Germany to Allies, Allies to US; Finland was the only nation to pay its war debt in full.

What did the Kellogg-Briand Pact propose?

It outlawed war as an instrument of national policy and permitted "defensive" wars but was never enforced.

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