Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Spinal Reflexes- Hayes

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Review/ Study Guide

Shingles

In the Condition _____, A virus infects dorsal root ganglia, causing a painful rash whose distribution corresponds to that of the affected sensory nerve.

Perinerium

The middle layer of the spinal nerve is termed the...

Move the neck

Somatic motor nuclei are located on each side of the spinal cord and control all of the following, except muscles that...

all of the above

Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block...

Meningitis

_____ is an inflammation of the menigeal membranes.

4

After age ____ the vertebral column continues to elongate, but the spinal cord does not.

Shorter

The cord itself is ____ in relation to the certebral column.

Epinerium

The outermost layer of connective tissue that surrounds each spinal nerve is the.

Mylinated Axons

The white matter of the spinal cord is dominated by.

Dura Mater

The tough, fibrous outermost covering of the spinal cord is the.

pathway to 4 to 6 neurons

Control of spinal reflexes by the brain involves all of the following except.

Are arranged according to dermatomes

All of the following are true of polysynaptic reflexes, except that they.

Recepricol inhibition

Interneurons in the spinal cord prevent muscle antagonists from interfering with an intended movement by.

Cross Extensor Reflex

The reflex that complements a withdrawal reflex by making compensatory adjustments on the opposite side of the body receiving the stimulus is the ______ reflex.

Remove from painful stimulus

The flexor reflex...

Tendon

The reflex that prevents a muscle from exerting too much tension is the _____ reflex.

are found in tendons and skeletal muscles

All of the following are true of muscle spindles, except that they....

Tendon/Withdrawal Reflex

_____ is an example of a polysynaptic reflex.

Innate

Reflexes that result from the connections that form between neurons during development are _____ reflexes.

Where they are sensory or motor

Reflexes can be classified according to all of the following except...

have a wide variability in response

All of the following are true of neural reflexes, except that they ....

Brachial

The Ulnar nerve is found in which plexus?

Brachial

The central rami of spinal nerves C5 to T1 form the _____ Plexus.

Phrenic

A nerve of the cervical plexus that innervates the diaphragm is the ____ nerves.

Sciatic

Each of the following nerves is found in the lumbar plexus, except the ____ nerve.

Plexus

The joining of the central rami of adjacent nerves is termed a...

Ventral Ramus

Sensory and motor innervations of the skin of the sides and front of the body are provided by the.

Leg

Spinal nerves from the sacral region of the cord innervate the _____ muscles.

Cervical

Muscles of the neck and shoulder are innervated by spinal nerves from the _____-region.

Dorsal Ramus

The _____ of each spinal nerve provides sensory and motor innervation to the skin and muscles of the back.

Lumbar Spinal- Nerve 4

Which of the following pairs is not properly matched?

Autonomic Nerves

Postganglionic fibers of the ANS that innervate organs do not rejoin the spinal nerve but form...

Gray Ramus Communicans

The postganglionic fibers that connect an autonomic ganglion is the thoracic or lumbar region with the local spinal nerve are called the...

Dorsal Ramus

The preganglionic fibers that connect a spinal nerve with an autonomic ganglion in the throacic and lumbar region of the spinal cord are the....

Spinal Nerve

The dorsal and ventral roots of each spinal segment unite to form a...

Mixed

Spinal nerves are ____ nerves.

Axons of Motor Neurons

The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains.

Axons of Sensory Neurons

The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains.

Cell bodies of Sensory Neurons

The dorsal root ganglia contain

Epinerium

The outermost connective-tissue covering of spinal nerves is the.

Bundles of Axons for origins, destinations, and functions

The white matter of the spinal cord contains.

Gray Commissures

Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the.

Horns

The projections of gray matter toward the outer surface of the spinal cord are called.

Pia Mater

Blood vessels directly supplying the spinal cord are found in the.

Spinal Meninges

The specialized membranes that protect the spinal cord are termed.

4

The spinal cord continues to elongate and enlarge until about age ____.

5

The entire spinal cord is divided into ____ segments

Fillum Terminale

The _____ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament.

In spinal segments that control the limbs.

Enlargements of the spinal cord occur.

Columns

In the spinal cord, white matter is organized into ascending and descending tracts grouping into.

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