Unit 12 Launching New Republic: Economic/Social Change, Gathering Storm

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Society for the Encouragement of Useful Manufactures

attempted to demonstrate the potential of large-scale industrial enterprises

Yeomen

white landowning family farmers

"republican motherhood"

idea that women should not rush into marriage but should first improve their minds so that they could instill republican ideals in their children

"the narrow circle of domesticity"

role of women to maintain roles in the household

Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts

series of laws designed to promote better relations between Indians and whites

Benjamin Banneker

self-taught African American mathematician and astronomer

Fugitive Slave Law

(1793) required return of runaway slaves; denied blacks any constitutional protections

Gabriel's Rebellion

failed slave rebellion in Virginia

Cotton gin

invention that made cleaning of southern cotton fast and cheap

Jeffersonianism

belief in representative democracy; opposition to monarchism and aristocracy; the yeoman farmer best exemplifies civic virtue

Popular liberty

required popular virtue, and virtue being the disposition to place public good above private interest and to exercise vigilance in keeping government under control

Jefferson's Revolution

Jefferson's mission to restore liberty and tranquility that he thought the US had enjoyed in its earliest years; to reverse what he saw a drift into despotism

Chief Justice John Marshall

arch-Federalist appointed by John Adams; one of most influential judges on the Supreme Court

Marbury vs Madison

Marshall and Court ruled that Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority; set standard for judicial review

Judicial review

principle that Supreme Court can review and reject measures passed by Congress

Louisiana Purchase

Jefferson's purchase of interior of North American from France; virtually doubled size of United States

Sacajawea

Shoshone Indian who guided Lewis and Clark on expedition; acted as symbol of peace between tribes

Lewis and Clark expedition

two-year exploration of newly acquired territory

Aaron Burr

American politician; served as the third Vice President under Thomas Jefferson

"Northern Confederacy"

plotted alliance of Nova Scotia, New England, New York, Pennsylvania by Aaron Burr

Burr Conspiracy

suspected treasonous group of planters, politicians, and army officers led by former U.S. Vice President Aaron Burr

Quids

Republicans who subscribed to "country ideology"

Country ideology

celebrated wisdom of farmer against rulers and warned against governments' tendency to encroach on liberty

Orders in Council

a series of British trade decrees through which Britain intended to blockade part of continental Europe; staunch flow of products that might aid French war effort

The Cheasapeake

US frigate that heightened tensions between British-American tensions

Impressment

British practice of taking deserters and others from American ships for service in the Royal Navy

Embargo Act of 1807

Jefferson's attempt at peaceable coercion by suspending American trade with France and England

Non-Intercourse Act

mostly ineffective act that lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports; meant to damage the economies of the Britain/France

Macon's Bill No. 2

act to motivate Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars

War hawks

Republicans that advocated for war against Britain in the War of 1812

Tecumseh

Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy that opposed the United States during the War of 1812

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