Which of the following statements about learning is NOT TRUE?
learning is another word for maturation
Ed noticed that whenever he used his electric can opener, his cat would come into the kitchen and act hungry-drooling and mewing pitiably. He reasoned that because he used the can opener to open the cat's food, the sound of the can opener had become a(n) ____.
Which of the following statements about conditioning is FALSE, according to Pavlov?
The CS must come immediately after the UCS
The prologue is about Stephanie's fear of white coats as a child. The fact that she was not only afraid of white coats worn by doctors and nurses but also those worn by photographers is an example ___.
conditioned repsonse that briefly reappears after it has been extinguished is called ___.
The use of a strong CS to create a second CS is called ___.
In Watson's experiment with "Little Albert," the unconditioned stimulus was ___.
the loud noise
Often people with certain types of cancer must take chemotherapy treatments. The drugs used in these treatments are powerful and usually cause strong nausea reactions. If Cindy had scrambled eggs for breakfast and then took a chemotherapy treatment later that same morning, what might we predict based on conditioned taste aversion research?
Cindy will probably get nauseated the next time she tries to eat scrambled eggs
Your pet parakeet eats some cooked spaghetti noodles. Later the poor bird gets very ill. What would the research on biological preparedness predict?
The parakeet will probably not eat linguini noodles because they are long and thin and look similar to spaghetti
The fact that the CS must come immediately before the UCS, and not after, is a problem for the ___ theory of why classical conditioning works.
Rescorla found that the CS must ___ the UCS for conditioning to take place.
In Thorndike's puzzle box experiments, the cats were rewarded by ___.
both a and b (getting out of the box and getting food)
___ is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas ___ is an example of a secondary reinforcer.
A candy bar; a gold star
Cindy hates to clean after dinner. One night she volunteers to bathe the baby before cleaning up. When she finishes with the baby and returns to the kitchen, her husband has cleaned everything up for her. Which of the following statements is most likely TRUE?
Cindy's husband has negatively reinforced her for bathing the baby
Bennie is afraid of snakes. He won't even look at pictures of them but turns the page or closes the book instead. When he sees a picture of a snake, his anxiety goes up, but when he avoids looking at the picture, his anxiety goes down. It is most correct to say that Bennie's avoidance behavior is being ___.
negatively reinforced because he is rewarded by his anxiety going down.
Jessica's mother was upset to find that Jessica had used her crayons to draw flowers on her bedroom wall. Her mother took the crayons away from her and made Jessica wash the drawings off the wall. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
both a and b are true (having her crayons taken away was a form of punishment by removal and being made to wash off the drawings was a form of punishment by application
Which of the following is NOT a problem with punishment?
mild punishment can be paired with reinforcement of the correct behavior
Elizabeth's parents want her to put her clothes in the hamper. At first, they praise her for putting the clothes together in one pile. Then they praise her for getting the clothes on the same side of the room as the hamper. When she gets the clothes on top of the hamper, she gets praise. Finally, her parents praise her when she puts her clothes in the hamper. This is an example 0f ___.
Ella is teaching he parrot a new word. Every time the parrot says a sound that is close to the new world, she gives it a treat. But the parrot keeps repeating the words it has learned in the past, trying to get a treat that way. The parrot is exhibiting ___.
In a popular television series, Desmond lived in a bunker underground on a mysterious island. He had one task: When the alarm sounds, type in a series of numbers on the computer and push enter. Desmond was being reinforced for doing so by avoiding some terrible disaster that would occur if he did not type in the numbers at the right time-every 108 minutes. What kind of schedule reinforcement was Desmond on?
Joe needed at o speak with his mother about a very important matter, but her phone line was busy. He keep hanging up and redialing, hanging up and redialing, each time hoping that this time he would be able to get his call through. What schedule of reinforcement is evident here?
Professor Elliot told his students that if his door was open, it meant that he was available to them and would gladly answer any questions they might have. But if his door was pushed almost completely shut, it meant that he was busy and would prefer not to answer questions at that time. Professor Elliot's door being open was a ___ for ___.
discriminative stimulus; asking questions
Applied behavior analysis involves ___.
the process of shaping
Cognition refers to ___.
the mental events that take place while a person is behaving.
In Tolman's maze study, the fact that the group of rats receiving reinforcement only after the tenth day of the study solved the maze far more quickly than did the rats who had been reinforced from the first day can be interpreted to mean that these particular rats ___.
had already learned the maze in the first nine days
Seligman found many similarities between his "helpless" dogs and people suffering from ___.
Kohler determined that Sultan's two-stick solution to the bakana problem was an example of insight because it was ___.
sudden and rapid
In Bandura's study with the Bobo doll, the children int he group that saw the model punished did not imitate the model at first. They would only imitate the model if given a reward for doing so. The fact that these children had obviously learned the behavior without actually performing it is an example of ___.
Miranda wanted to make a casserole she saw on a food show on TV. She bought the ingredients, put them together, baked it, and served it at dinner that night. To her horror, it tasted awful. She realized that she had left out a key ingredient and vowed next time to write everything down as she watched the show. Miranda's dinner disaster was an example of failing at which of Bandura's four elements of observational learning?
Learning is ___.
any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience
In your college dorm, any time you take a shower, someone always flushes the toilet and causes the water in your shower to turn icy cold, making you cringe. After several episodes like this, you find that you tend to cringe whenever you hear the toilet flush, no matter where you are. In this example, what is the conditioned stimulus?
the sound of the flushing
A child has been classically conditioned to fear a white rat. If the child also shows fear when shown a white rabbit, this is called ___.
You move out of your dorm into an apartment with three other people. Unlike the shower in the dorm, this however does not turn cold when the toilet is flushed, and you eventually stop cringing every time you hear the flushing sound. What has occurred?
When one conditioned stimulus is used to create another, this is called ___.
Tenia ate out with some friends and had fried oysters. The next morning she was nauseated and sick for much of the day. The next time she saw someone eating fried oysters, she felt queasy and quickly looked away. Her queasiness at the sight of the fried oysters was probably due to ___.
a conditioned taste aversion
The fact that some kinds of stimuli (like a taste) are more easily and quickly connected to a response (like nausea) is explained by the concept of ___.
They key to the cognitive perspective of classical conditioning is that the presentation of the presentation of the conditioned stimulus must ___.
provide information about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus
In classical conditioning, the ___ are important in learning, but in operant conditioning, it is the ___ that determine whether learning will occur.
Who added the concept of reinforcement to learning theory?
Which of the following is an example of a secondary reinforcer?
praising a child
Joaquin's parents have given his 2 year old daughter, Marie, a very noisy jack-in-the-box toy for her birthday. Marie loves to turn the crank and make the puppet pop up, over and over and over. Desperate to have some peace and quiet, Joaquin gives Marie a popsicle, which distracts her and produces the quiet he was craving. But when the popsicle is finished, Marie goes back to the toy, cranking and cranking. Joaquin tries another popsicle. What kind of reinforcement process is taking place in this situation?
both a and c are correct (Marie is being positively reinforced for playing with he toy by receiving the treat and Joaquin is being negatively reinforced for giving her the treat by the absence of the noise)
Liz failed her math test, so her parents told her that she could not play video games for a month. Her parents are using ___.
punishment by removal
To make punishment more effective, it should be ___.
paired with reinforcement of the correct behavior
Sherry wants her dog to "heel" on command. At first she gives the dog a treat for coming to her when she speaks the command, "Heel!" Then she only rewards the dog when it stands at her side when she gives the command and, finally, rewards the dog only when it is at her side and facing front. Sherry is using ___.
One-year old Ben learned to say the word duck when his mother showed him a duck in their backyard. That evening he sees a cartoon with a rooster in it and "duck", pointing tot he rooster. Ben is exhibiting ___.
For every 10 boxes of cookies that Lisa sells, her scout troop gets a dollar. Lisa is being reinforced on what schedule?
Dennis buys a lottery ticket every Saturday, using the same set of numbers. Although he has only won $25 on one occasion, he keeps buying the tickets. In fact, he's a little afraid that if he doesn't buy a ticket, that would be the one that would win really big. The fact that Dennis seems addicted to buying lottery tickets is a common characteristic of which schedule of reinforcement?
SAndy had larned that if her mother was smiling at her when she came into the kitchen, it meant that SAndy would probably be given a treat to eat if she asked nicely. but if her mother was frowning, she would not give Sandy anything and instead would shoo her away. Sandy's mother's facial expression was serving as a ___.
In applied behavior analysis, ___,
skills are broken down into their smallest steps and then reinforced
Jody has had repeated failures at asking guys out on dates. One day at the office a really nice guy seems interested in her, but she refuses to even approach him. What concept might explain her reluctance?
Archimedes was told by the king to find a way to prove that a gold crown was really gold. While in his bath, he noticed the water that his body displaced out of the tub and shouted, Eureka!" which means "I have found it!" If the crown was really gold, it should displace the same amount of water as an equal amount of real gold. This is a famous example of ___.
Jared realized that he had learned how to prepare his father's famous chili recipe by watching his father in the kitchen for many years. This kind of learning is called ___.
Barry would really like to learn to do ballroom dancing, but he has a severe limp in his left leg. Although he watches ballroom dancing on TV and can remember all the moves and dips, he will be very unlikely to be able to learn to dance this way because he is missing a key element of observational learning. What is it?