biology 111 chapter 10

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the person who made the most lasting impression on the science of genetics is

Gregor Mender

If a healthy young couple are both carriers of cystic fibrosis, the chance that each of their future children will inherit this serious illness is

25%

A portion of DNA that encodes a specific protein is

a gene

Alternate forms of the same gene are called

alleles

In humans, alleles are inherited from

males and females(two alleles from each parent)

All gametes contain

one set of chromosome

The pea plant (Pisum sativum) is a good choice for studying heredity because it

is easy to control which plants mate with each other

Mendel called a masking trait

dominant

Mendel called a trait that is masked

recessive

An allele that exerts its effects whenever it is present is

dominant

If the two alleles for a particular gene are identical the gene pair is

homozygous

If the two alleles for a particular gene are different the gene pair is

heterozygous

If an individual is heterozygous for a particular trait

each parent contributed a different allele for that trait

If an individual is homozygous for a particular trait

each parent contributed the same allele for that trait

Recessive alleles seem to vanish in some generations and reappear in later ones due to

they are masked by a dominant allele

Genotype means

the combination of alleles in an individual

Phenotype means

the observable expression of the genes in an individual

The most common or "normal" phenotype or allele for a gene in a population is the

a wild type

In the study of genetics the offspring of the P generation is referred to as the

F1 generation

A pea plant with (Tt) as its genotype should be referred to as

heterozygous

A monohybrid cross is a mating between two individuals that are both

heterozygous for one gene

Any monohybrid cross consisting of one dominant and one recessive allele for the trait studied should result in a ratio of ______________ dominant to __________________ recessive.

three, one

A test cross is a mating of an individual with an unknown genotype and an individual that

is homozygous recessive

Two alleles of each gene are packaged into separate gametes and they move apart from each other during gamete formation summarizes Mendel's

law of segregation

A dihybrid cross is a mating between two individuals that are each ______________ for ___________ gene (genes).

heterozygous, two

Segregation of alleles for a gene on one chromosome that does not influence the segregation of alleles for a gene on another chromosome during meiosis is Mendel's

law of independent assortment

In the ABO blood type system the alleles IA, IB and i produce

four phenotypes

In the ABO blood type system, the IA allele is _____ with the IB allele.

codominant

If the heterozygous phenotype is intermediate between the homozygotes, this is called

incomplete dominance

Autosomes

a non sex chromosome

Linked genes, by definition, are genes that

are found on the same chromosome

Crossing over is more likely to separate genes on a chromosome if they are

far apart

To inherit an autosomal dominant disorder a person could receive the disease causing allele from

the mother or the father

To inherit an autosomal recessive disorder requires the person receive the disease causing allele from

both parents

A person has a recessive allele for a disease but the allele is masked by the presence of a normal dominant allele in the person. This person

termed a carrier

Diagrams depicting family relationships and phenotypes for a genetic disorder are

pedigree charts

The chromosome that determines human gender is

the Y chromosomes

Hemophilia A is caused by

an X linked recessive disorder causing a defective blood clotting protein

Homologous chromosomes have

7 pairs of homologous chromosomes

A single chromosome has

a single gene with a single allele

Yellow peas are an example of

phenotypr

Having the alleles Tt is

a genotype

If a pea plant is heterozygous for yellow seeds (Yy), which gametes will it produce?

Y or y

If a pea plant is homozygous recessive for yellow seeds (yy), which gametes will it produce?

y only

If a pea plant is homozygous for yellow seeds (YY), which gametes will it produce?

Y only

If you cross two heterozygous (Yy) pea plants, what proportion of the offspring will be heterozygous?

50%

If you cross two heterozygous Yy pea plants, what proportion of the offspring will be the dominant color yellow?

75%

Which gametes can a RrYy plant produce?

RY, Ry,rY,ry

Which gametes can a RRyy plant produce?

RR or yy

In an inherited form of high cholesterol, (HH) individuals have a blood cholesterol level greater than 500mg/dL, (RH) individuals are near 300mg/dL, and normal (RR) cholesterol levels should be less than 200mg/dL. The H allele is ___ to the R allele.

codominant

In cystic fibrosis, two unaffected carriers can have a child with the disease. It is as common in boys as in girls. This disease is

autosomal recessive

The wide variation in skin color in humans is best explained by

skin color is a polygenic trait

Which has the following in order from smallest to largest

DNA nucleotides, gene, chromosome, cell

Which of the following is in the correct order?

meiosis of diploid cell, haploid gametes produced, fertilization, new diploid organism formed

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