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Human sperm cells ________ than egg cells.

are smaller

A teratogen is a(n):

substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child.

If research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of an artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a:

teratogen.

Darlene smoked heavily during the entire 9 months of her pregnancy. Her newborn baby will most likely be:

underweight.

One of the most consistently damaging teratogens is:

alcohol.

Newborns have been observed to show the greatest visual interest in a:

facelike image.

When placed close to a gauze breast pad from their nursing mothers, week-old babies are likely to:

turn their head toward the smell of their mother's pad.

From ages 3 to 6, the brain's neural networks are sprouting most rapidly in the:

frontal lobes.

The association areas are the last regions of the brain to fully develop their:

neural networks.

Maturation refers to:

biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience.

Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in ________ of the major developmental milestones.

the age-related timing but not the sequence

Horace, the youngest child of a high school athletic director, was able to roll over at 3 months, crawl at 6 months, and walk at 12 months. This ordered sequence of motor development was largely due to:

maturation.

The concept of maturation is most relevant to understanding the absence of:

bladder control among 2-year-olds.

Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child:

develops through a series of stages.

According to Piaget, schemas are:

people's conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences.

Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called

assimilation.

According to Piaget, accommodation refers to:

adjusting current schemas in order to make sense of new experiences.

Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle-aged male nurse took care of him. Nageeb's altered conception of a "nurse" illustrates the process of:

accommodation.

During which of Piaget's stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived?

sensorimotor

When Tommy's mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket, he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly near the beginning of Piaget's ________ stage.

sensorimotor

When researcher Karen Wynn (1992, 2000) showed 5-month-old infants a numerically impossible outcome, the infants:

stared longer at the outcome.

According to Piaget, a child can represent things with words and images but cannot reason with logic during the ________ stage.

preoperational

If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation, they are unable to:

recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape.

The egocentrism of preschoolers was most strongly emphasized by:

Piaget's cognitive development theory.

According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to:

the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view.

Psychologists David Premack and Guy Woodruff described chimpanzees' seeming ability to read the intentions of other chimps as indicative of:

a theory of mind.

Chloe can clearly sense when her sister's teasing is intended to be friendly fun or a hostile put-down. This best illustrates that Chloe has developed a(n):

theory of mind.

Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen has proposed that autism is indicative of an inborn:

male systemizing tendency.

According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about events first develops during the ________ stage.

concrete operational

According to Piaget, children come to understand that the volume of a substance remains constant despite changes in its shape during the ________ stage.

concrete operational

According to Piaget, a person first comprehends that division is the reverse of multiplication during the ________ stage.

concrete operational

The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called:

attachment.

Little Karen will approach and play with unfamiliar animals only if her mother first reassures her that it is safe to do so. This best illustrates the adaptive value of:

attachment.

Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with:

body contact.

A critical period is a phase during which:

certain events have a particularly strong impact on development.

Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatrician's waiting room, little Sandra tenaciously clings to her mother's skirt. Sandra most clearly shows signs of:

insecure attachment.

Aaron cried when his mother left him in the infant nursery at church, and he was not reassured or comforted by her return a short while later. Aaron showed signs of:

insecure attachment.

In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with a secure maternal attachment are most likely to:

use their mothers as a base from which to explore the new surroundings.

Evidence that easy, relaxed infants develop secure attachments more readily than difficult, emotionally intense babies would illustrate the importance of:

conservation.

Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between human infants and their mothers?

responsive parenting

Two-year-old Anna perceives her parents as cold and rejecting. This is most indicative of:

insecure attachment.

When placed in strange situations without their artificial mothers, the Harlows' infant monkeys demonstrated signs of:

insecure attachment.

Already at 15 months of age, Justin strongly senses that he can rely on his father to comfort and protect him. This most clearly contributes to:

basic trust.

Harlow observed that most monkeys raised in total isolation:

were incapable of mating upon reaching sexual maturity.

Authoritative parents are likely to have children who:

have high self-esteem and are self-reliant.

At age 12, Sean is happy, self-reliant, and has a positive self-image. It is most likely that Sean's parents are:

authoritative.

Compared to authoritarian parents, authoritative parents are likely to be:

more responsive.

Compared to "late bloomers," boys who mature sexually at an early age tend to be more:

popular and self-assured.

Ten-year-old Heidi is maturing early and already towers over all the girls and most of the boys in her fifth-grade class. Heidi is likely to be:

the object of some teasing.

The first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as ________ is to an adolescent girl.

menarche

One argument against the death penalty for 16- and 17-year-olds is that maturation of the ________ lags behind maturation of the ________.

frontal lobe; limbic system

Fourteen-year-old Lisa was asked, "What would happen if everyone in the world suddenly went blind?" She responded, "Those who had previously been blind would become leaders." Lisa's answer indicates she is in the ________ stage of development.

formal operational

According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents a ________ morality.

preconventional

Even though smoking marijuana would reduce the pain associated with her chronic medical condition, Juanita believes it would be morally wrong because it is prohibited by the laws of her state. Kohlberg would suggest that Juanita demonstrates a(n) _______ morality.

conventional

According to Kohlberg, postconventional morality involves:

affirmation of self-defined ethical principles.

Despite huge legal costs and social disapproval, Mr. Lambers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of dollars on military weapons. Mr. Lambers' reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg's ________ stage.

postconventional

Critics of Kohlberg's theory of moral development have suggested that postconventional morality is more characteristic of ________ than of ________.

men; women

Learning to delay gratification promotes:

moral action.

According to Erikson, isolation is to intimacy as role confusion is to:

identity

Sixteen-year-old Brenda questions her parents' values but does not fully accept her friends' standards either. Her confusion about what she really wants and values in life suggests that Brenda is struggling with the problem of:

identity.

Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for:

intimacy.

Adolescents are most likely to be influenced by their parents with respect to ________, and they are most likely to be influenced by their peers with respect to ________.

career aspirations; clothing preferences

Today's earlier female sexual maturation is especially likely among:

overweight girls in father-absent homes.

Which of the following is true of adolescence in contemporary industrialized societies, as compared to previous centuries?

It begins earlier in life and ends later in life.

Lewis is a 70-year-old retired college professor. In contrast to when he was 30, he now probably:

does not hear as well.

Elderly people are not increasingly susceptible to:

common cold viruses.

Most 20-year-olds outperform most 70-year-olds on video games due to age-related differences in:

information-processing speed.

When asked to recall the one or two most important events over the last half century, older adults tend to name events that occurred when they were between ________ years of age.

10 and 30

When adults of varying ages were tested for their memory of a recently learned list of 24 words, the older adults demonstrated:

decline in recall but not in recognition.

Those who criticize theories of age-linked adult developmental stages are most likely to emphasize the importance of ________ on adult development.

the social clock

Identical twins with similar values and preferences are not very strongly attracted to one another's fiancés. This fact has been used to suggest that romantic attraction is influenced by:

chance encounters.

Compared to 40 years ago, American men today are marrying:

at an older age and American women are marrying at an older age.

After living together for a year, Sylvia and Yefim have decided to marry. Research on premarital cohabitation most strongly suggests that:

their marriage will have a higher-than-average probability of ending in divorce

Among employed women, the task of raising children is especially likely to be associated with ________ marital satisfaction. The departure of mature children from the home is typically associated with ________ marital satisfaction.

decreasing; increasing

Marie feels socially useful in her career as a financial investment advisor. Erik Erikson would have suggested that Marie experiences a sense of:

generativity.

As people progress into late adulthood, they increasingly use words that convey ________ emotions, and the amygdala shows diminishing activity in response to ________ events.

positive; negative

During the time following the death of a loved one:

those who express the strongest grief immediately do not purge their grief more quickly.

Mary believes that cognitive development is a matter of gradual and almost imperceptible changes over time. Her viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of:

continuity or stages.

A belief that adult personality is completely determined in early childhood would be most relevant to the issue of:

stability or change.

Questions about whether anxious children will grow up to be either fearful or relaxed adults most directly highlight the issue of:

stability or change.

The fact that many happy and well-adjusted adults were once rebellious and unhappy as adolescents is most relevant to the issue of:

stability or change.

The stability of personality traits is greater among:

adults than among children.

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