Digestive System

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Chapter 6

gastrointestinal (GI) system

digestive system
consists of a digestive tube and several accessory organs whose primary function is to break down food, prepare it for absorption, and eliminate waste

GI tract

digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus

oral cavity or buccal cavity

other names for mouth

bilirubin

orange-colored or yellowish pigment in bile;
yellow compound formed when erythrocytes are destroyed

bolus

mass of masticated food ready to be swallowed

exocrine

denotes a glad that secretes its products through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel

sphincter

circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening of the body

mouth

or/o
stomat/o

tongue

gloss/o
lingu/o

cheek

bucc/o

oral

pertaining to the mouth

stomatisis

inflammation of the mouth

glossectomy

removal of all or part of the tongue

lingual

pertaining to the toungue

buccal

pertaining to the cheek

lip

cheil/o
labi/o

cheiloplasty

surgical repair of defective lip

labial

pertaining to the lips, particularly the lips of the mouth

teeth

dent/o
odont/o

dentist

specialist who diagnoses and treats diseases and disorders of the teeth

orthodontist

dentist who specializes in correcting and preventing irregularities of abnormally positioned or aligned teeth

gum(s)

gingiv/o

gingivectomy

excision of diseased gingival tissue

saliva, salivary gland

sial/o

sialolith

calculus formed in a salivary gland or duct

esophagus

esophag/o

esophagoscope

instrument used to examine the esophagus

pharynx (throat)

pharyng/o

pharyngotonsillitis

inflammation of the pharynx and tonsils

stomach

gastr/o

gastralgia

pain in the stomach; also called stomachache

pylorus

pylor/o

pylorospasm

involuntary contractions of the pyloric sphincter of the stomach, as in pyloric stenosis

duodenum (first part of small intestine)

duoden/o

duodenoscopy

visual examination of the duodenum

intestine (usually small intestine)

enter/o

enteropathy

disease of the intestine

jejunum (second part of small intestine)

jejun/o

jejunorrhaphy

suture of the jejunum

ileum (third part of the small intestine)

ile/o

ileostomy

creation of an opening between the ileum and the abdominal wall

appendix

append/o
appendic/o

appendectomy

excision, removal of the appendix

colon

col/o
colon/o

colostomy

creation of an opening between the colon and the abdominal wall

colonoscopy

visual examination of the colon

sigmoid colon

sigmoid/o

sigmoidotomy

incision of the sigmoid colon

rectum

rect/o

anus, rectum

proct/o

liver

hepat/o

pancreas

pancreat/o

bile vessel

cholangi/o

bile, gall

chol/e

gallbladder

cholecyst/o

bile duct

choledoch/o

vomit

-emesis

abnormal condition (produced by something specified)

-iasis

enlargement

-megaly

appetite

-orexia

digestion

-pepsia

swallowing, eating

-phagia

meal

-prandial

discharge, flow

-rrhea

through, across

dia-

around

peri-

under, below

sub-

asymptomatic

without symptoms

gastroenterology

branch of medicine concerned with digestive diseases

ulcer

circumscribed open sore, on the skin or mucous membranes within the body

peptic ulcer disease (PUD)

develops in the parts of the GI tract that are exposed to hydrochloric acid and pepsin, and enzyme secreted in the stomach that begin the digestion of proteins

excerbate

intensify

perforation

hole in the wall lining

ulcerative colitis

chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum, commonly begins in the rectum or sigmoid colon and extends upward into the entire colon

hernia

protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure through the wall of the cavity in which it is naturally contained

inguinal hernia

develops in the groin where the abdominal folds of flesh meet the thighs

strangulated hernia

develops if blood supply to the hernia is cut off because of pressure, leads to necrosis with gangrene

umbilical hernia

protrusion of part of the intestine at the navel

hernioplasty

surgical repair of hernia

herniorrhaphy

suture of the abdominal wall

hiatal hernia

lower part of the esophagus and the top of the stomach slides through an opening (hiatus) in the diaphragm into the thorax

adhesion

mechanical obstruction of scar tissues

volvolus

mechanical obstruction, intestinal twisting

intussusceptions

intestinal "telescoping" where part of the intestine slips into another part just beneath it

hemorrhoids

enlarged veins in the mucous membrane of the anal canal

hepatitis A (infectious), hepatitis B (serum), hepatitis C

3 most common types of hepatitis

ingestion of contaminated food, water, or milk

common cause of hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis)

by routes other than the mouth (such as blood transfusions and sexual contact)

how hepatitis b and c are usually transmitted

jaundice or icterus

yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes; often occurs because the liver is no longer able to remove bilirubin or bile duct is blocked causing bile to enter the bloodstream

diverticulosis

condition in which small, blisterlike pockets develop in the inner lining of the large intestine (most commonly in the sigmoid colon) and may balloon through the intestinal wall

diverticula

small, blisterlike pockets

diverticulitis

condition in which the diverticula become inflammed

obstipation

extreme/severe constipation; may be caused by an intestinal obstruction

gastric adenocarcinoma

cancerous glandular tumor

anorexia

lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat

anorexia nervosa

complex psychogenic eating disorder characterized by an all-consuming desire to remain thin

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection

ascites

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen

borborygmus

rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine

cachexia

physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS and cancer

cholelithiasis

presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct

cirrhosis

scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease

colic

spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain

Crohn disease

chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal tract; also called regional enteritis

deglutition

act of swallowing

dysentery

inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, which results in bloody diarrhea

dyspepsia

epigastric discomfort felt after eating; also called indigestion

dysphagia

inability or difficulty in swallowing; also called aphagia

eructation

producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sound; also called belching

fecalith

fecal concretion

flatus

gas in the GI tract; expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

backflow of gastic contents into the esphagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus

halitosis

offensive, or "bad" breath

hematemesis

vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach and esophagus

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered blowel function (typically constipation, diarrhea, or altering constipation and diarrhea) for which no organic cause can be determined; also called spastic colon

malabsorption syndrome

symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph

melena

passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices

obesity

excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight

morbid obesity

body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight

oral leukopakia

formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheek caused primarily by irritation

peristalsis

progressive, wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hallow tubes of the body, especially the GI tract

pyloric stenosis

stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter (circular muscle of the pylorus) at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine

regurgitation

backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach

steatorrhea

passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it

endoscopy

visual examination of a cavity or canal using a flexible fiberoptic instrument called an endoscope

hepatitis panel

panel of blood tests that identify the specific virus - hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), or hepatitis C (HCV) - causing hepatitis by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antigens

liver function tests (LFTs)

group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions often associated with the biliary tract

serum bilirubin

measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood

stool culture

test to identify microorganisms or parasites present in feces

stool guaiac

applying a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect presence of occult (hidden) blood in the feces; also called Homoccult (trade name of a modified guaiac test)

barium enema (BE)

radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium) into the rectum; also called lower GI series

barium swallow

radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium); also called esophagram and upper GI series

cholecystography

radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet

computed tomography (CT)

imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

endoscopic procedure that provides radiographic visualization of the bile and pancreatic ducts to identify partial or total obstructions, as well as stones, cysts, and tumors

percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTCP)

radiographic examination of bile duct structures

sialography

radiologic examination of the salivary glands and ducts

ultrasonography (US)

test that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to analyze the reflected echos from anatomical structures and convert them into an image on a video monitor

biopsy

representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis

nasogastric intubation

procedure that involves insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distention by removing gas, food, or gastric secretions; to instill medication, food, or fluids; or to obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis

anatomosis

surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another

ileorectal anatomosis

surgical connection of the ileum and rectum after total colectomy, as is sometimes performed in the treatment of ulcerative colitis

intestinal anastomosis

surgical connection of two portions of the intestines; also called enteroenterostomy

bariatric surgery

group of procedures that treat morbid obesity, a condition which arises from severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue, and the resultant health problems

vertical banded gastroplasty

upper stomach near the esophagus is stapled vertically to reduce it to a small pouch; a band is then inserted that restricts food consumption and delays its passage from the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RGB)

stomach is first stapled to decrease it to a small pouch
then jejunum is shortened and connected to the small stomach pouch, causing the base of the duodenum leading from the non-functioning portion of the stomach to form a Y configuration, which decreases the pathway of food through the intestine and reducing absorption of calories and fats

colostomy

creation of an opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag

lithotripsy

procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments either surgically or using ultrasonic shock waves

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