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GENERALIZATION

When two stimuli are functionally equivalent

autonomic reflex

nothing that we've learned, just natural physical response such (dog saliva/straw lecture story)

shaping

an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

episodic memory

memory for episodes in your own life

semantic memory

your memory for meanings and general (impersonal) facts

procedural memory

Memory of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection

sensory memory

the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system

short term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten

long term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.

algorithms

very specific, systematic methods that always reach a correct result

heuristics

mental shortcuts that help us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world

mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

phonemes

smallest units of sound in the human language, like consonants or vowels

morphemes

smallest meaningful units of speech; simple words, suffixes, prefixes; examples: red, hot, calm, -ed, pre-

heirarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher level safety needs and then psychological needs become active. (Physiological, Safety, Belongingness/Love, Esteem, Self-actualization)

repression

(psychiatry) the classical defense mechanism that protects you from impulses or ideas that would cause anxiety by preventing them from becoming conscious

childhood amnesia

A phenomenon that no one can accurately recall events from the first three years of life.

conditioned stimulus

the stimulus that is the occasion for a conditioned response

conditioned response

an acquired response that is under the control of (conditional on the occurrence of) a stimulus

unconditioned stimulus

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.

unconditioned response

in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.

classical conditioning

a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli - learning by association

ivan pavlov

Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (1849-1936) (CLASSICAL CONDITIONING)

aptitude testing

A test designed to predict future performance

achievement testing

a test designed to asses what a person has learned

memory processes

encoding storage and retrieval

neutral stimulus

a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response

alfred binet

the indvidual that published the first measure of intelligence in 1905. The purpose of his intelligence test was to correctly place students on academic tracks in the French school system.

garcia and koelling

researchers who did major studies on classical conditoning and taste aversions - rats

systematic desensitization

a technique used in behavior therapy to treat phobias and other behavior problems involving anxiety

proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

retroactive interference

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

BF SKINNER

1904-1990; Field: behavioral; Contributions: created techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior; Studies: Skinner box

syntax

the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences

wais

(Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) Verbal & performance scores. Most widely used intelligence test today

abraham maslow

humanistic psychology; hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied; self-actualization, transcendence

James Lange theory

we are afraid BECAUSE WE TREMBLE, different PATTERNS of autonomic activation lead to the experience of different emotions

facial feedback

the process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed

HYPOTHALAMUS

forebrain region that governs motivation and emotional responses

YERKES DODSON LAW

performance is best under a condition of moderate arousal - social interaction causes stimulation, change in activity

extinction

the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.

learning

"anything that happens to us that alters our thoughts or views"

fixed ratio

a schedule where reinforcement happens after a correct number of responses

variable ratio

a schedule where reinforcement happens after a varied number of responses

higher order conditioning

Pairing a second conditioned stimulus with the first conditioned stimulus in order to produce a second conditioned response.

state dependent

memories that are recalled better when the mood in which they were orginallt encoded is recreated

context dependent

the cue is the environment you learnt it in

piaget

Swiss psychologist remembered for his studies of cognitive development in children (4 stages)(1896-1980)

need

state of deprivation

incentive

a reason for doing something

motive

a reason or an emotion that makes one act in a certain way

drive

state of tension produced by a need that motivates an organism toward a goal

psychic energy

Freud's term for the biologically based instinctual drives that he believed fuels behavior, thoughts and feelings

instinct theory

theory that states behavior is motivated by instincts

unconditioned stimulus

this is what the meat powder is considered

conditioned stimulus

this is what the bell tone in the dog experiments is considered

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