When two stimuli are functionally equivalent
nothing that we've learned, just natural physical response such (dog saliva/straw lecture story)
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
memory for episodes in your own life
your memory for meanings and general (impersonal) facts
Memory of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection
the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
short term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten
long term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
very specific, systematic methods that always reach a correct result
mental shortcuts that help us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
smallest units of sound in the human language, like consonants or vowels
smallest meaningful units of speech; simple words, suffixes, prefixes; examples: red, hot, calm, -ed, pre-
heirarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher level safety needs and then psychological needs become active. (Physiological, Safety, Belongingness/Love, Esteem, Self-actualization)
(psychiatry) the classical defense mechanism that protects you from impulses or ideas that would cause anxiety by preventing them from becoming conscious
A phenomenon that no one can accurately recall events from the first three years of life.
the stimulus that is the occasion for a conditioned response
an acquired response that is under the control of (conditional on the occurrence of) a stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli - learning by association
Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (1849-1936) (CLASSICAL CONDITIONING)
A test designed to predict future performance
a test designed to asses what a person has learned
encoding storage and retrieval
a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response
the indvidual that published the first measure of intelligence in 1905. The purpose of his intelligence test was to correctly place students on academic tracks in the French school system.
garcia and koelling
researchers who did major studies on classical conditoning and taste aversions - rats
a technique used in behavior therapy to treat phobias and other behavior problems involving anxiety
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
1904-1990; Field: behavioral; Contributions: created techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior; Studies: Skinner box
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
(Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) Verbal & performance scores. Most widely used intelligence test today
humanistic psychology; hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied; self-actualization, transcendence
James Lange theory
we are afraid BECAUSE WE TREMBLE, different PATTERNS of autonomic activation lead to the experience of different emotions
the process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed
forebrain region that governs motivation and emotional responses
YERKES DODSON LAW
performance is best under a condition of moderate arousal - social interaction causes stimulation, change in activity
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
"anything that happens to us that alters our thoughts or views"
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a correct number of responses
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a varied number of responses
higher order conditioning
Pairing a second conditioned stimulus with the first conditioned stimulus in order to produce a second conditioned response.
memories that are recalled better when the mood in which they were orginallt encoded is recreated
the cue is the environment you learnt it in
Swiss psychologist remembered for his studies of cognitive development in children (4 stages)(1896-1980)
state of deprivation
a reason for doing something
a reason or an emotion that makes one act in a certain way
state of tension produced by a need that motivates an organism toward a goal
Freud's term for the biologically based instinctual drives that he believed fuels behavior, thoughts and feelings
theory that states behavior is motivated by instincts
this is what the meat powder is considered
this is what the bell tone in the dog experiments is considered