A 31-year-old female is experiencing an acute asthma attack. She is conscious and alert, but in obvious respiratory distress. After assisting her with her prescribed MDI, you should:
reassess the patient and document her response to the medication.
You arrive at a residence approximately 20 minutes after a 7-year-old boy, who weighs 22 kg, ingested a bottle of Advil. He is conscious and alert and has stable vital signs. Medical control orders you to administer activated charcoal and oxygen and then transport the child at once. The appropriate maximum dose of activated charcoal for this child is:
You are dispatched to a movie theater for a 39-year-old female with signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction. As you are assessing her, she pulls an epinephrine auto-injector out of her purse and hands it to you. After administering 100% oxygen, you should:
contact medical control.
Which of the following is an example of a drug's generic name?
The __________ of a medication usually dictates the route by which it will be administered.
While assisting a paramedic in the attempted resuscitation of a 55-year-old male in cardiac arrest, you should expect the paramedic to:
administer drugs via the IV route to achieve the fastest effect.
The process of binding or sticking to a surface is called:
An EMT may administer aspirin to a patient if:
authorization from medical control has been obtained.
Which of the following is the MOST rapidly acting medication administration route?
Which of the following statements regarding the epinephrine auto-injector is correct?
The epinephrine auto-injector delivers a preset amount of the drug.
When given to patients with cardiac-related chest pain, nitroglycerin:
relaxes the walls of the coronary arteries.
The term "pharmacology" is MOST accurately defined as:
the study of drugs and their actions on the body.
A 49-year-old male with an extensive cardiac history presents with 2 hours of crushing chest pain and shortness of breath. He is pale and diaphoretic and tells you that he feels like he is going to die. His medications include nitroglycerin, sildenafil (Viagra), and enalapril (Vasotec). His blood pressure is 140/90 mm Hg and his heart rate is 110 beats/min. In addition to administering 100% oxygen, you should:
ask him if he took his Viagra within the past 24 hours.
When assessing an elderly male who complains of nausea and generalized weakness, you find that he takes simvastatin (Vytorin) and clopidogrel (Plavix). This medication regimen suggests a history of:
You are treating a 45-year-old woman who was stung by a hornet and has a rash. She tells you that she is allergic to hornets and has her own epinephrine auto-injector. She also tells you that she takes medication for hypertension. Her breath sounds do not reveal any wheezing, her breathing is unlabored, and her blood pressure is 154/94 mm Hg. What should you do if you are not able to make contact with medical control?
Give her oxygen, transport her to the hospital, and monitor her condition en route.
A medication with antagonistic properties is one that:
blocks receptor sites and prevents other chemicals from attaching to them.
Advil, Nuprin, and Motrin are brand (trade) names for the generic medication:
Which of the following medication routes has the slowest rate of absorption?
Activated charcoal is an example of a:
Medications encased in a gelatin shell taken by mouth are called:
Subcutaneous injections deliver the medication:
between the skin and the muscle.
Which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct?
Glucose is a simple sugar that is readily absorbed by the bloodstream.
How is nitroglycerin usually given by the EMT?
A 74-year-old woman complains of heaviness in her chest, nausea, and sweating that suddenly began about an hour ago. She is conscious and alert, but anxious. Her blood pressure is 144/84 mm Hg and her heart rate is 110 beats/min. She took two of her prescribed nitroglycerin (0.4-mg tablets) before your arrival but still feels heaviness in her chest. You should:
recall that geriatric patients often have slower absorption and elimination times, which may necessitate modification of the dosing of certain drugs.
Reassessment is performed to determine all of the following, EXCEPT:
the reason why the patient called EMS.
When performing a reassessment of your patient, you should first:
repeat the primary assessment.
A patient with high blood pressure would be expected to have skin that is:
flushed and red
Poor peripheral circulation will cause the skin to appear:
A 29-year-old male with a head injury opens his eyes when you speak to him, is confused as to the time and date, and is able to move all of his extremities on command. His Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score is:
When palpating a patient's pulse, you note that it is grossly irregular. You should:
count the pulse rate for a full minute to obtain an accurate reading.
Jugular venous distention suggests a problem with blood returning to the heart if the patient is:
C. sitting up at a 45° angle.
The MOST effective way to determine whether your patient's problem is medical or traumatic in origin is to:
perform a careful and thorough assessment.
auscultating the blood pressure in a patient's upper extremity, you should place the diaphragm (head) of the stethoscope over the _________ artery.
The pulse oximeter is an assessment tool used to evaluate the:
effectiveness of oxygenation.
In which of the following situations is a pertinent negative identified?
A 59-year-old man complains of crushing chest pain but denies shortness of breath.
Which of the following abnormal breath sounds indicates obstruction of the upper airway?
Which of the following findings indicates that your patient has a patent airway?
Which of the following MOST accurately describes paradoxical movement of the chest wall?
only one section of the chest rises on inspiration while another area falls
When performing a full-body scan on a trauma patient, you note the presence of Battle's sign. This is defined as:
bruising behind the ear.
A patient with spontaneous respirations is breathing:
An injured patient is assigned a total score of 9 on the GCS. He is assigned a score of 2 for eye opening, a score of 3 for verbal response, and a score of 4 for motor response. Which of the following clinical findings is consistent with his GCS score?
opens eyes in response to pain, uses inappropriate words, withdraws from pain
You receive a call to a local daycare center for an unresponsive 8-month-old infant. Upon arrival, you perform an assessment and determine that the infant is not breathing. After delivering two rescue breaths, you should:
assess for the presence of a brachial pulse.
Normal respiratory rates should not exceed _______ breaths per minute in children and _______ breaths per minute in infants.
When you inspect a patient's pupils with a penlight, the pupils should normally react to the light by:
Which of the following pupillary changes would indicate depressed brain function?
Both pupils dilate with introduction of a bright light.
A blood pressure cuff that is too small for a patient's arm will give a:
falsely high systolic and diastolic reading.
In patients with deeply pigmented skin, changes in color may be apparent only in certain areas, such as the:
A palpable pulse is created by:
pressure waves through the arteries caused by cardiac contraction.
A 50-year-old male presents with an altered mental status. His wife tells you that he had a "small stroke" 3 years ago but has otherwise been in good health. The patient is responsive but unable to follow commands. After administering oxygen, you should:
prepare for immediate transport.
During your assessment of a 6-month-old male with vomiting and diarrhea, you note that his capillary refill time is approximately 4 seconds. From this information, you should conclude that his:
peripheral circulation is decreased.
The goal of the primary assessment is to:
identify and rapidly treat all life-threatening conditions.
An adult patient who is NOT experiencing difficulty breathing will:
be able to speak in complete sentences without unusual pauses.
When assessing a patient's abdomen, you will typically evaluate for all of the following, EXCEPT:
Clinical signs of labored breathing include all of the following, EXCEPT:
shallow chest movement.
If a patient develops difficulty breathing after your primary assessment, you should immediately:
reevaluate his or her airway status.
A 40-year-old male crashed his motorcycle into a tree. He is semiconscious, has snoring respirations, and has a laceration to the forearm with minimal bleeding. You should:
open his airway with the jaw-thrust maneuver.
Which of the following questions is used to determine a patient's chief complaint?
What seems to be the matter?"
While en route to the scene of a shooting, the dispatcher advises you that the caller states that the perpetrator has fled the scene. You should:
confirm this information with law enforcement personnel at the scene.
Which of the following would the EMT most likely not perform on a responsive patient with a headache and no apparent life-threatening conditions?
systemic head-to-toe examination
The full-body scan of a patient that occurs following the primary assessment should take no longer than:
60 to 90 seconds.
When palpating a patient's pulse, you note that there is a short interval between pulsations. This indicates that the pulse is:
Which of the following patients does NOT have an altered mental status?
a patient with an acute allergic reaction and dizziness
Which of the following statements regarding positive-pressure ventilation is correct?
C. With positive-pressure ventilation, more volume is required to have the same effects as normal breathing.
A 19-year-old female is found unconscious by her roommate. Your primary assessment reveals that her breathing is inadequate. As you insert an oropharyngeal airway, she begins to gag violently. You should:
remove the airway and be prepared to suction her oropharynx.
The jaw-thrust maneuver is used to open the airway of patients with suspected:
cervical spine injuries.
Intrapulmonary shunting occurs when:
blood coming from the right side of the heart bypasses nonfunctional alveoli and returns to the left side of the heart in an unoxygenated state.
A patient who is suspected of being hypoxic and is breathing adequately should be given supplemental oxygen with a:
Which of the following organs or tissues can survive the longest without oxygen?
Which of the following patients should you place in the recovery position?
a 31-year-old semiconscious male with low blood sugar and adequate breathing
Hypoxia is MOST accurately defined as:
inadequate oxygen to the tissues and cells.
The purpose of the pin-indexing system that has been established for compressed gas cylinders is to:
ensure that the correct regulator is used for the cylinder.
The MOST serious complication associated with using a nasopharyngeal airway in a patient with trauma to the head or face is:
penetrating the cranium.
The pressure of gas in a full cylinder of oxygen is approximately _______ pounds per square inch (psi).
To select the proper size oropharyngeal airway, you should measure from the:
corner of the mouth to the earlobe.
An adult at rest should have a respiratory rate that ranges between:
12 and 20 breaths/min.
You have inserted an oral airway and are ventilating an apneic woman with a bag-mask device. She suddenly begins regurgitating large amounts of vomit. You should:
roll her onto her side and remove the oral airway.
What occurs when a patient is breathing very rapidly and shallowly?
Air moves primarily in the anatomic dead space and does not participate in pulmonary gas exchange.
You are ventilating a 40-year-old uninjured man who is apneic but has a pulse. When your partner reassesses his blood pressure, he notes that it has decreased significantly from previous readings. You elevate the patient's legs, but this action has no effect. You should:
reevaluate the rate and volume of your ventilations.
As the single EMT managing an apneic patient's airway, the preferred initial method of providing ventilations is the:
mouth-to-mask technique with a one-way valve.
With a good mask-to-face seal and an oxygen flow rate of 15 L/min, the nonrebreathing mask is capable of delivering up to ______% inspired oxygen.
The nasopharyngeal airway is MOST beneficial because it:
can maintain a patent airway in a semiconscious patient with a gag reflex.
CPAP is indicated for patients who:
have pulmonary edema and can follow verbal commands.
Which of the following structures is NOT found in the upper airway?
The actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs in the:
Which of the following statements regarding normal gas exchange in the lungs is correct?
Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the alveolar walls and capillaries.
You and your partner are treating a 66-year-old man who experienced a sudden onset of respiratory distress. He is conscious but is unable to follow simple verbal commands. Further assessment reveals that his breathing is severely labored and his oxygen saturation is 80%. You should:
assist his ventilations with a bag-mask device.
Which of the following is a late sign of hypoxia?
Gas exchange in the lungs is facilitated by:
adequate amounts of surfactant.
In the presence of oxygen, the mitochondria of the cells convert glucose into energy through a process called:
. aerobic metabolism.
Prior to applying a nonrebreathing mask on a patient, you must ensure that the:
reservoir bag is fully inflated.
A 51-year-old female presents with a sudden onset of difficulty breathing. She is conscious and alert and able to speak in complete sentences. Her respirations are 22 breaths/min and regular. You should:
administer 100% oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask.
the physical act of of moving air into and out of the lungs.
the process of loading oxygen molecules onto hemoglobin molecules in the bloodstream.
the actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoil as well as the tissues of the body .