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verrucae

Warts. Soft, tan colored, cauliflower-like lesions. Epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, koliocytosis.

Nevocellular nevus

Common mole. Benign

Urticaria

Hives. Intensely pruritic wheals that form after mast cell degranulation . Dilated superficial lymphatic channels

Ephelis

Freckle. Normal number of melanocytes but increase melanin pigment

Atopic dermatitis (eczema)

Pruritic eruption, commonly on skin flexures. Often associated with ASTHMA and allergic rhinitis

Psoriasis

Papules and plaques with SILVERY SCALING especially on knees and elbows. Acanthosis with parakeratotic scaling (nuclei still in stratum corneum). Increased stratum spinosum and decreased granulosum. Auspitz sing (bleeding spots when scales are scraped off. Can be associted with nail pitting and psoriatic arthritis

Seborrheic keratosis

Flat, greasy, pigmented squamous epithelial proliferation with keratin-filled cysts (pseudo horns). Looks pasted on. Lesions occur on head, trunk and extremities . Common benign neoplasm of older people.

Albinism

Normal melanocyte number with decreased melanin production due to decreased activity of tyrosinase. Can also be caused by failure of neural crest cell migration during development

Vitiligo

Irregular areas of complete depigmentation. Caused by a decrease in melanocytes

Melasma

Hyperpigmentation associated with pregnancy ("mask of pregnancy") or OCP use

Impetigo

Very superficial skin infection. Usually from S. Aureus or S. Pyogenes. Highly contagious and honey colored crusting

Cellulitis

Acute, painful spreading of infection of dermis and subcutaneous tissues. Usually from S. pyogenes or S. Aureus

Necrotizing fasciitis

Deeper tissue injury, usually from anaerobic bacteria and S. Pyogenes. Results in crepitus from methane and CO2 production. Flesh eating bacteria

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS)

Exotoxin destroys keratinocyte attachments in the stratum granulosum only. Chracterized by fever and generalized erythematous rash with sloughing of the upper layers of the epidermis. Seen in newborns and children

Hairy Leukoplakia

White painless plaques on the tongue that cannot be scraped off. EBV mediated. Occurs in HIV positive patients

Pemphigus vulgaris

Potentially fatal autoimmune skin disorder with IgG antibody against desmosomes (anti-epithelial cell antibody); immunofluoresecence reveals antibodies around cells of epidermis in a reticular or netlike pattern.

Acantholysis

intraepidermal bullae involving the skin and oral mucosa

Bullous pemphigoid

Autoimmune disorder with IgG antibody against hemidesmosomes. Shows linear immunofluorescence. Eosinophils within blisters. Affects skin but spares oral mucosa

Dermatitis herpetiformis

Pruritic papules and vesicles. Deposits of IgA at the tips of dermal papillae. Associated with celiac disease

Erythema multiforme

Associated with infections (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, HSV) drugs (sulfa drugs, Beta lactams, phenytoin) cancers, and autoimmune disease. Presents with multiple types of lesions (target)

Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Characterized by fever, bulla formation and necrosis, sloughing of skin, and a high mortality rate. Usually associated with adverse drug reaction.

Lichen Planus

Pruritic, Purple, Polygonal Papules. Sawtooth infiltrate of lymphocytes at dermal-epidermal junction. associated with HEPATITIS C

Actinic keratosis

Premalignant lesions caused by sun exposure. Small, rough, erythematous or brownish papules. Cutaneous horn. Risk of carcinoma is proportional to epithelial dysplasia

Acanthosis nigricans

Hyperplasia of the stratum spinosum. Associated with hyperinsulinemia and visceral malignancy

Erythema nodosum

Inflammatory lesions of subcutaneous fat, usually on anterior shins. Associated with coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, TB, leprosy, streptococcal infections, sarcoidosis

Pityriasis rosea

Herald path followed days later by Christmas tree distribution. Multiple papular eruptions; remits spontaneously

Strawberry hemangioma

First few weeks of life (1/200) births; grows rapidly and regresses spontaneously at 5-8 years of age

Cherry hemangioma

Appears in 30-40s does not regress

Actinic chelitis

can result in SCC due to sunexposure; ulcerated lesion that may appear on the vermillion of the lip

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