← Anatomy Lecture Exam 2 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All phonation nonbiological function of the larynx musculo cartilage structure of larynx larynx sits on first tracheal ring, is covered by mucous membrane= epithelium + connective tissue aryepiglottic folds at the mouth of the larynx, go all the way around ventricular folds (false) constrict and subdivide the laryngeal cavity, not used for phonation true vocal folds constrict and subdivide the laryngeal cavity, used for phonation aditus also known as aditus laryngis, is the opening of the larynx from the pharynx rima vestibuli opening between the ventricular (false) folds glottis also known as rima glottis, opening between the true vocal folds cavities of larynx hollow chambers within the larynx vestibule space between the aditus and the ventricular (false) folds atrium (subglottal) space between the true vocal folds and the trachea vallecula valleys between base of tongue and epiglottis, food may get trapped in this area pyriform sinus grooves that are on either side of the aditus, redirect fluids around the aditus hyoid bone "U" shaped bone suspended from skull thyroid cartilage large shield shaped cartilage cricoid cartilage only cartilage that completly circles the larynx, seen in all views arytenoid cartilage small pyramid shaped cartilage with muscle attachments muscular process attachment of intrinsic laryngeal muscles vocal process attachment of vocal ligament and muscles corniculate cartilages small tips of the arytenoids cuneiform cartilages small cartilages at rim of aditus triticeal cartilage small cartilages in the throhyoid ligament epiglottis large spoon or heart shaped cartilage hyaline cartilage components cricoid cartilage, thyroid cartilage, arytenoid cartilages. all can ossify with age elastic cartilage components apex of arytenoid cartilages, corniculate cartilages, epiglottis. does not ossify with age rocking modifies tension on vocal folds gliding adduction/abduction of vocal folds (entire vocal fold) rotation adduction/abduction of only posterior 1/3 of vocal folds cricothyroid joint flexion/extension of joint modifies tension on vocal folds quadrangular membrane fibroelastic mucous membrane that lines the vestibule, PCCE, forms ventricular(false) fold at lower margin conus elasticus fibroelastic mucous membrane that lines the atrium, STSE and PCCE, forms the true vocal folds at upper margin intrinsic ligaments lateral and medial cricothyroid ligaments, cricoarytenoid ligaments epithelium mostly PCCE, STSE at vocal folds lamina propria elastic and fibrous connective tissue superficial layer elastic fibers reticular pattern cushions the folds intermediate layer elastic fibers anterior to posterior deep layer collagen arranged posterior to anterior extrinsic laryngeal muscles muscles that have one attachment (origin) located outside of the larynx. insertion inside larynx intrinsic laryngeal muscles muscles that have both sites of attachment located in the larynx sensory nerves carry information about pain, and position motor nerves carry directions for muscles and glands vocal attack adduction of the vocal folds into the airstream to start phonation, also known as glottic attack simultaneous vocal attack expiration and adduction occur at the same instant breathy vocal attack expiration occurs before the vocal fold adduction glottal attack expiration is started after vocal fold adduction sustained phonation long periods of phonation resulting from sustained adduction of the vocal folds register mode of vibration during sustained phonation termination of phonation abduction of the vocal folds to remove the folds from the airstream articulation modification of vibrational sounds using the resonating chamber and tongue muscular activity interactions amoung intrinsic laryngeal muscles vocal frequencies number of glottal cycles per second male 130 cycles per second female 260 cycles per second bernouli effect as air velocity increases in a space, air pressure decreases fundamental frequency the average pitch sustained over long periods of conversation optimal pitch vocal fold vibration most appropriate for an individual pitch range range of frequencies an individual can produce intensity loudness of sounds produced, caused by increased pressure whisper not a mode of phonation, no voicing occurs breathy vocal folds are inadequately adducted, air rushes through opening and give the voice a "breathy" quality creaky (vocal fry) "I'm sick" voice. Known as strohbass. voice of low pitch with a crackly quality to it, product of low subglottal pressure cricothyroid (recta and oblique) both increase the distance between arytenoid and thyroid cartilages. Raise pitch. thyroarytenoid (thyrovocalis portion) increases vocal fold tension. Raises pitch. posterior cricoarytenoid prevents anterior sliding of the arytenoids. Aids above two to raise pitch. laryngeal elevators raise larynx, and raise pitch laryngeal depressors lower larynx and pitch pharyngeal constrictors decrease laryngeal cross sectional diameter, and raise pitch. sternothyroid rocks thyroid forward and down, increasing tension on vocal fold. Raise pitch. geniohyoid, anterior digastric, thyrohyoid tilt thyroid upward, relaxing tension on vocal folds. Lowers pitch.