the nearer the fluid is to the pump the _____ the pressure exerted on the fluid
Systemic Blood pressure is highest in the
the steepest drop in blood pressure occurs in the
they offer the greatest resistance to blood flow
why does the steepest drop in blood pressure occur in the arterioles?
arterial blood pressure
reflects two factors: 1) how much the elastic arteries close to the heart can be stretched and 2) the volume of blood forced into them at any time
pressure peak; usually averages 120 mmHg in adults
during this time, aortic pressure drops to its lowest level, usually around 70 to 80 mmHg
The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the:
increased stroke volume and faster blood ejection
what can cause temporary increases in the pulse pressure?
what can chronically increase pulse pressure?
mean arterial pressure (MAP)
the pressure that propels the blood to the tissues
diastole lasts longer than systole
why is MAP not simply the value halfway between the systolic and diastolic pressures
increasing distance from the heart
MAP and pulse pressure both decline with what?
capillaries are fragile and high pressure would rupture them, and most capillaries are extremely permeable and even the low capillary pressure forces solute containing fluids out of the bloodstream into the interstitial space
Why are such low capillary pressures desirable?
pulsates with each contraction of the left ventricle
venous blood pressure
steady and changes very little during the cardiac cycle
adequate venous return
venous pressure is normally too low to promote what?
pressure changes in the ventral body cavity during breathing moves blood up toward the heart
abdominal pressure increases squeezing the local veins and forcing blood toward the heart
what happens as we inhale?
as the skeletal muscles contract and relax they milk the blood towards the heart
The third adaptation is the layer of smooth muscle around the veins that constricts under what?