Ethnics Studies Midterm

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Anti-Semitism

Anti-Jewish prejudice or discrimination

Bilingual education

A program designed to allow students to learn academic concepts in their native language while they learn a second language

Civil Religion

the religious dimension in American life that merges the state with sacred beliefs (ex: One nation "under God")

Ethclass

the merged ethnicity and class in a person's status / both important in determining an individual's life chances

Ethnicity paradox

the maintenance of one's ethnic ties in a way that can assist with assimilation in larger society / Facilitates full entry into the dominant culture through economic and psychological strength and positive self-esteem

Halakha

Jewish laws covering obligations and duties

Holocaust

the state-sponsored systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators

Judaization

the lessening importance of Judaism as a religion and the substitution of the cultural tradition as the tie that binds Jews

Edmunds-Tucker Act 1887

-Federal legislation provided up to 3 yrs imprisonment as punishment for the practice of polygamy - also dissolved Morman Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company and the Church of J.C. Latter-Day Saints in Utah Territory

Morrill Act 1862

forbade the practice of polygamous marriage

Respectable bigotry

Michael Lerner's term for the social acceptance of prejudice against White ethnics, when intolerance against non-white minorities is regarded as unacceptable

Rumspringa

Pennsylvania Dutch word for "running around" - the life stage among Amish teenagers when 16yrs old or older are free to experiment with mainstream customs

Symbolic ethnicity

Herbert Gan's term that describes emphasis on ethnic food and ethnically associated political issues rather than deeper ties to one's heritage

Third-Generation interest

Marcus Hansen's contention that ethnic interest and awareness increase in third generation, among the grandchildren of immigration

Yiddishkait

"Jewishness"

Words of Wisdom

Morman publication strongly prohibiting smoking, drinking alcohol, indecent language, abortion, premarital sex, extramarital sex, birth control, consumption of caffeine and drug use in general

Zionism

Traditional Jewish religious yearning to return to the biblical homeland, now used to refer to support for the state of Israel

Orientalism

the simplistic view of people and history of the Orient with no recognition of change over time or the diversity with its many cultures

Muslim Americans

those who practice Islam and live in the U.S. (monotheistic, worship Allah, guided by Koran...)

Arab Americans

the immigrants and their descendants from the countries that now comprise the Arab world

Blended identity

self-image and worldview that is a combination of religious faith, cultural background, based on nationality and current residency

Hijab

refers to a variety of garments that allow women to follow the guidelines of modest dress

Hajj

pilgrimage to Mecca to be completed at least one in a Muslim's lifetime

Jihad

struggle against the enemies of Allah, usually taken to mean one's own internal struggle

Xenophobia

the fear or hatred of strangers or foreigners

Transnationals

immigrants who sustain multiple social relationships linking their societies of origin and settlement

Sinophobes

people with a fear of anything associated with China

Remittances

(or migradollars) the monies that immigrants return to their country of origin

Refugees

people living outside their country of citizenship for fear of political or religious persecution

Naturalization Act of 1790

made all those born to U.S. citizens automatically citizens / required a set of period of residence prior to naturalization

Naturalization

conferring of citizenship on a person after birth

Nativism

beliefs and policies favoring native-born citizens over immigrants

National Origins System

Rules that used country of birth to determine whether a person could enter as an illegal alien / # of previous foreign-born immigrants and their descendants used to set quota / favored Northern Europe

Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA)

Act that granted amnesty to 1.7 million illegal immigrants who could prove had been living in U.S. for 4 yrs / made hiring illegal immigrants illegal / tried to reduce illegal immigration *(had very little actual effect)

Chinese Exclusion Act

outlawed Chinese immigration for 10 years / also explicitly denied naturalization rights to Chinese in the U.S. (not allowed to become U.S. citizens) / was the first time a particular ethnic group was restricted from immigration / [after first 10 yrs, was extended for 10 more]

Brain Drain

immigration to the U.S. of skilled workers, professionals, and technicians who are desperately needed by their home countries

Asylees

foreigners who have already entered the U.S> and now seek protection because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution

Anchor babies

a child born a U.S. citizen in order to facillitate immigration through family reunification under the provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965

Prejudice

an attitude that consists of a set of negative beliefs, feelings, and action orientations that are associated with some identifiable group of individuals

Institutional racism

the whole body of laws, customs, and organizational practices that systematically results in the racial inequalities, regardless of how much racial prejudice is involved

Institutional sexism

the body of laws, customs, and organizational practices that systematically result in sexual inequalities, regardless of how much prejudice is involved

Scapegoat theory

a person or group blamed irrationallly for another person's or group's problems or difficulties

Glass wall

barrier to moving laterally in a business to positions that are more likely to lead to upward mobility

Glass ceiling

the barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified worker because of gender or minority membership

Redlining

the pattern of discrimination against people trying to buy homes in minority and racially changing neighborhoods

Total discrimination

the combination of current discrimination with past discrimination created by poor schools and menial jobs

Reverse discrimination

actions that cause better-qualified white men to be passed over for women and minority men

Environmental justice

efforts to ensure that hazardous substances are controlled so that all communities receive protection regardless of race or socioeconomic cirumstances

Institutional discrimination

a denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups resulting from the normal operations of society

Relative deprivation

the conscious experience of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities / people deprived of what they perceive as their 'fair share'

Ethnophaulism

ethnic or racial slurs, including derisive nicknames

Ethnocentrism

the tendency to assume that one's culture and way of life are superior to all others

Discrimination

the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons

Contact hypothesis

an interactionist perspective stating that intergroup contact between people of equal status in noncompetitive circumstances will reduce prejudice

Normative approach

the view that prejudice is influenced by society norms and situations that encourage or discourage the tolerance of minorities (ex: it is the norm to assume "white male" in many situations - such as writing textbooks/proposing theories)

Stereotypes

unreliable, exaggerated generalizations about all members of a group that do not take individual differences into account

Social distance

tendency to approach or withdraw from a racial group

Bogardus scale

technique to measure social distance toward different racial and ethnic groups

Exploitation theory

a Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the U.S. as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism

Authoritarian personality

a psychological construct of a personality type likely to be prejudice and to use others as scapegoats

Affirmative action

positive efforts to recruit subordinate group members, including women, for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities / started by Kennedy in 1961

Minority group

a subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives than do the members of a dominant or majority group (very broad, anyone could consider themselves a member of one)

Myth

any collective belief that is uncritically accepted

Marginality

the status of being between two cultures at the same time, such as the status of Jewish immigrants in the U.S

Pluralism

mutual respect between the various groups in a society for one another's cultures, allowing minorities to express their own culture without experiencing prejudice or hostility

Assimilation

the process by which a subordinate individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant group

Melting Pot

diverse racial or ethnic groups or both, forming a new creation, a new cultural entity

Amalgamation

the process by which a dominant group and a subordinate group combine through intermarriage to form a new group

Fusion

a minority and a majority group combining to form a new group

Segregation

the physical separation of two groups, often imposed on a subordinate group by the dominant group

Genocide

the deliberate systematic killing of an entire people or nation

Racism

a doctrine that one race is superior

Colonialism

a foreign power's maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over people for an extended period

Emigration

leaving a country to settle in another

Migration

a general term that describes any transfer of population

Stratification

a structures ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and power in a society

Racial formation

a sociohistorical process by which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed and destroyed

Ethnic group

a group set apart from others because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns

5 Subordinate Group Features

1.) Social inequality, 2.) Some differentiating feature (physical or cultural), 3.) Unvoluntarily membership, 4.) Sense of unity, 5.) Majority refusal to marry into them

"race"

a mythic construction that uses obvious physical traits or morality attributes to distinguish a group of people / has no genetic isolating feature / can differ extensively within itself

4 main means of dealing with subordinate groups

1.) Segregation, 2.) Pluralism, 3.) Fusion, 4.) Assimilation

3 processes of forming a minority group

1.) migration (emigrating from one country to immigrate into another), 2.) annexation (addition of one group's land to another's territory), 3.) colonialism (one group having political, economic, and cultural dominance over another)

Factors that increase assimilation time

1.) Differences (cultural/physical) between groups are large, 2.) Majority is not receptive, 3.) Minority desires to maintain its cultural aspects/rejects mainstream, 4.) Sudden/Quick arrival of minority group, 5.) Minority group members live near one another, 6.) Homeland is easily accessible

timit bigots

people who experience prejudice thoughts, but do not act on them for fear of consequences

Reasons people don't act on prejudices

1.) Timit bigots (fear of consequences), 2.) Personally know someone from that ethnic group/Exceptions, 3.)

4 Major Theories to explain Prejudice

1.) Scapegoating Theory (but why some over others?), 2.) Authoritarian Personality Theory (but ignores sociological reasons), 3.) The Normative Approach (but ignores personality type), 4.) The Exploitation Theory (ignores personality type)

Why gender ratio imbalance of Chinese for many yrs?

Men did not return rejoin wives (wives remarried, banning of Chinese immigration, man's lack of financial success) & Legislation prohibited interracial marriages

Why German's maintined cultural attibutes?

1.) Inhabited new frontier , 2.) Large number , [U.S. instead adopted MANY German customs/features]

Why Catholic Irish immigrants shunned/mistreated in America?

1.) Were Catholic, 2.) Americans feared for jobs, 3.) Heavy-drinker reputation, 4.) Irish slums (sickness, filth) , 5.) Folklore/myths disliked, 6.) Fear of Pope taking over U.S. politics

Irish's strengths

Politics, banking businesses, bars&saloons [jobs that required personable people]

The Immigration Act of 1990

1.) Increased the # of immigrants by a lot by increasing # of visas for skilled workers, creating a safe haven for Salvadorans already in U.S., allowing more immigrants due to kinship ties , 2.) Lottery process , 3.) encourage front door entry

Hmong

must be born or married into clan / Patrilineal (strongly favor males) / Stereotypical sex roles / Spiritual healing

Muslim/Arab U.S. immigration trends

Early 1900s immigration began / halted by WWI & Nat. Origins System / 1965 began again (due to 1965 Immigration and Naturalization Act) ..increased until 9/11 / 9/11 30% decrease / past few years has risen

Islam (religion)

Virtually no chuch-state separation / follow Qur'an / fast during Ramadan / pray to Mecca 5 times per day / undertake Hajj / conservative dress code / discouraged male female contact / dietary constraints / democratic stance

Southern Italy immigrants

bad land so poor / natural disasters / battling empires so peasants / strong sense of community with immediate family / disliked education / fighting & drinking / mostly illiterate / anti-union

Northern Italy immigrants

better land so better off / Italian Renaissance in north / better land / less natural disasters / literate / union-members / looked down upon Southern Italians

Padrone

a system of recruiters, organizers and supervisors that worked with Italian work crews to provide their unskilled labor to various recipients (middle man between employer and employees) / popular with Southern Italians

Ordnung (rules to which the Amish obediently conform)

1.) No official building of worship, 2.) Pacifism, 3.) Communalism, 4.) Simplicity, 5.) Humility ("demut"), 6.) Idleness = "devil's work"

Shared values of Hasidim (NY) and Amish (PA)

Traditional gender roles + Strict clothing codes + Lack of importance of education + No desire to assimilate/rejection of mainstream U.S.

Jewish U.S. immigration trends

FIRST Sephardic Jews (from Spain/Portugal->Brazil->U.S) + SECOND Ashkenazic Jews + THIRD German Jews + FOURTH Eastern European jews + FIFTH WWI Jews

Reasons Jews losing Yiddishkait

Family no longer exclusively Jew with high birth rate \ Divided about HOW to practice Judaism \ No longer speak Yiddish or Hebrew

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