AP US History - Imperialism: The New Manifest Destiny

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Maximilian Affair

1860s, French (Napoleon III) put Maximilian on Mexican throne; because of American Civil War, US could not force France and Maximilian to leave; when Civil War ended, US sent troops to Rio Grande River. French troops pulled out. Max. stayed, was overthrown and executed.

Navalism

The campaign to build an imperial navy; expansionists embraced this and argued for a bigger, modernized navy.

White Man's Burden

A poem by British poet Rudyard Kipling commenting on American imperialism. It created a phrase used by imperialists to justify the imperialistic actions the U.S. took.

Xenophobia

An irrational fear of foreigners or strangers.

Albert Beveridge

A senator from Indiana. He is known for being a imperialist that believed we should expand everywhere we could because other countries were not capable of governing themselves. Justified the annexation of the Philippines, thus promoting a growth of American imperialism.

Anti-Imperialist League

objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900

Missionary Diplomacy

Woodrow Wilson's policy contingent on the belief that it was America's responsibility and destiny to spread its institutions and values to the far corners of the globe

Jingoism

extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy

Charles Eliot Norton

a leading American author, social critic, and professor of art at Harvard. He was a militant idealist, a progressive social reformer, and a liberal activist whom many of his contemporaries considered the most cultivated man in the United States.

Josiah Strong

Expansionist who blended racist and religious reasons to justify American expansion in the 1880s and 1890s; he saw the Anglo-Saxon race as trained by God to expand throughout the world and spread Christianity along the way. A popular American minister who linked Anglo-Saxonism to Christian missionary ideas.

Sphere of Influence

the geographical area in which one nation is very influential. A foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.

Indemnity

a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury

Thomas Platt

New York politician who successfully schemed to get Theodore Roosevelt out of New York and into the Vice Presidency in Washington

Insular Cases

These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos.

Hay-Herran Treaty

A treaty proposed in 1903 between the United States and Colombia over Panama. It was rejected by the Colombian Senate and caused the U.S. to support a bid for the independence for Panama, so that they could build the canal.

Virginius

1873 - Spain and U.S. government got into a squabble over the Cuban-owned Virginius, which had been running guns. Spain executed several Americans who had been on board. The telegraph was used to negotiate a truce. The incident was played up by the yellow journalists.

Drago Doctrine

Argentine jurist, Luis Drago, proposed that European countries could not use force to collect debts owed by countries in the Americas. They could not blockade South American ports. Adopted as part of the Hague Convention in 1907. (extended the Monroe doctrine)

Elihu Root

He took over the War Department after the Spanish-American War, established a general staff, and founded the War College in Washington. This paid off in World War I. Secretary of War under Roosevelt, he reorganized and monderized the U.S. Army. Later served as ambassador for the U.S. and won the 1912 Nobel Peace Prize.

Lansing-Ishi Agreement

Japan respected Open Door policy in China, while the U.S. acknowledged that Japan had special interests in China. It somewhat eased Japanese-American relations, which at that point, were strained.

"Colossus of The North"

The name given to America by Latin America; we were seen as the overbearing policeman; United States.

U.S.S. Oregon

Warship involved in Spanish-American blockade in Cuba in 1898. Went from Cuba to the Philippines by going around the Southern tip of South America. Showed that we need a better route between the Atlantic and the Pacific.

Most Favored Nation Status

Agreement to offer a trading partner the lowest tariff rate offered to other trading partners.

Benjamin F. Tracy

United States political figure who served as Secretary of the Navy from 1889 through 1893, during the administration of U.S. President Benjamin Harrison. A lawyer active in Republican Party politics during the 1850s. Supported a naval strategy focused more on offense, rather than on coastal defense and commerce raiding.

"Smoked Yankees"

Buffalo soldier. Nickname given to members of African American cavalry regiments of the U.S. Army who served in the western U.S

John Pershing

an American general who led troops against "Pancho" Villa in 1916. He took on the Meuse-Argonne offensive in 1918 which was one of the longest lasting battles- 47 days in World War I. He was the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during World War I.

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