The Vascular System, Chapter 13

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inner layer (lining, or endothelium

The layer of the wall of an artery that is smooth to prevent abnormal clotting is the inner

middle layer.

The layer of the wall of an artery that helps maintain blood pressure is the

outer layer.

The layer of the wall of an artery that helps prevent rupture is the

lining, prevent abnormal clotting

Simple squamous epithelium forms the ? of an artery, and its function is to

middle, maintain BP.

Smooth muscle tissue forms the ? layer of an artery, and its function is to ?

outer, prevent artery from rupture

FTC forms the ? layer of an artery, and its function is to ?

inner layer.

In the wall of a vein, the layer that is folded into valves is the ?

BP

The outer layer of the wall of a vein is thin because ? in veins is low.

prevent back flow of blood.

The function of valves in veins is to

anastomosis

In the vascular system, an alternate pathway for blood flow is provided by vessels called an ?

organ

An arterial anastomosis provides an alternate pathway for blood to flow to an ?

heart

A venous anastomosis provides an alternate pathway for blood to flow back to the ?

simple squamous epithelial, thinness

Capillaries are made of ? tissue, and its important characteristic is its?

exchanges

Capillaries are the site of ? between the blood and tissues.

precapillary spincter, smooth muscle

The flow of blood into a capillary network is regulated by a ?, which is made of ? tissue.

diffusion

In capillaries, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between blood and tissues by the process of ?

filtration

In capillaries, nutrients are brought out into tissues by the process of?

osmosis

In capillaries, tissue fluid is brought back into the blood by the process of?

BP

In capillaries, the process of filtration depends on?

albumin plasma proteins

In capillaries, colloid osmotic pressure is created by the presence of ? in the blood

filtration

In capillaries, blood pressure provides the energy for the process of?

colloid osmotic

In capillaries, albumin creates? pressure, a pulling pressure.

arterioles, venules

Capillaries carry blood from ? to ?

heart, capillaries

Arteries carry blood from the ? to ?

capillaries, heart

Veins carry blood from ? to the ?

internal carotid, basilar

The circle of Willis is formed by the two ? arteries and the ? artery.

brain, anastomosis

The circle of Willis supplies the ? and is an example of an arterial ?

digestive organs, spleen, liver

In hepatic portal circulation, blood from the ? and the ? flows through the ? before returning to the heart.

portal, sinusoids

In hepatic portal circulation, veins from abdominal organs unite to form the ? vein that empties blood into the ? of the liver.

small intestine, glycogen

One purpose of portal circulation is to enable the liver to receive glucose absorbed by ? and store the excess as ?

detoxify, brain

One purpose of hepatic portal circulation is to enable the liver to receive alcohol absorbed the stomach and ? it before blood reaches the ?

old RBC, store

One purpose of portal circulation is to enable the liver to receive the iron of ? destroyed in the spleen and ? any excess

right ventricle

In pulmonary circulation, blood is pumped to the lungs by the ?

Right ventricle, left atrium

In pulmonary circulation, blood is pumped to the lungs by the ? and returns to the ? of the heart.

CO2 (carbon dioxide), O2 (oxygen)

In pulmonary capillaries, ? diffuses from blood to air, and ? diffuses from air to blood.

low, alveoli

The BP in pulmonary circulation is always ?. to prevent filtration and accumulation of fluid in the ?

placenta

In fetal circulation, exchanges between fetal blood and maternal blood take place in the ?

umbilical vein

In fetal circulation, blood flows from the placenta to the fetus through the ?

umbilical arteries

In fetal circulation, blood flows from the fetus to the placenta through the?

vein, arteries

In fetal circulation, blood in the umbilical ? vein has a high level of oxygen, and blood in the umbilical ? has a high level of carbon dioxide.

ductus venous

In fetal circulation, the vessel that takes most incoming blood to the inferior vena cava is the ?

foramen ovale

In fetal circulation, the ? permits blood to flow from the right atrium to the left atrium.

ductus arteriosus

In fetal circulation, the ? permits blood to flow from the pulmonary artery to the aorta.

pulmonary artery, aorta

In fetal circulation, the ductus arteriosus permits blood to flow from the ? to the ?

heart

Venous return is the amount of blood that is returned to the?

Smooth

Veins are able to constrict because of the ? tissue in their walls

thoracic cavity

The respiratory pump is especially important for venous return by the veins in the ?

valves

The flow of venous return is kept to one direction only the ? in the veins.

decrease

If venous return decreases, cardiac output will ?

stretch, lower

The elasticity of the large arteries permits them to ? during left ventricular systole, and thereby to ? systolic BP.

recoil (snap back), raise

The elasticity of the large arteries permits them to ? during left ventricular diastole, and thereby to ? diastolic BP.

systole, systolic

The large arteries are elastic, and are stretched by left ventricular ?, thereby lowering ? BP.

contract more forcefully

Starling's law of the heart states that when cardiac muscle fibers are stretched, they will ?

less, decrease

If venous return decreases, the heart contracts? forcefully and cardiac output ?

epinephrine

The hormone that raises blood pressure by increasing heart rate and force of contraction is ?

norepinephrine

The hormone that raises blood pressure by causing vasoconstriction throughout the body is ?

aldosterone

The hormone that raises blood pressure by increasing sodium and water reabsorption by the kidneys is

ADH

The hormone that raises BP by directly increasing the reabsorption of water by the kidneys is ?

ANP

The hormone that lowers BP by increasing the excretion of sodium and water by the kidneys is ?

filtration, water

When blood flow through the kidneys decreases, the process of ? decreases, and ? is conserved to maintain BP.

kidney, decrease

Renin is secreted by the ? when BP ?

Renin, angiotension II

When BP decreases, the kidneys secrete ?, which initiates the formation of ?

increase

To compensate for a small loss of blood, the heart rate will ?

decrease urinary output

To compensate for a small loss of blood, the kidneys will?

constrict

To compensate for a small loss of blood, the arteries will?

120/80

A normal BP is considered to be below

140/90

Hypertension is considered to be a BP that is consistently higher than?

medulla

The ? of the brain regulates the diameter of arteries and veins

medulla, vasoconstrictor, vasodilator

The ? of the brain regulates the diameter of arteries and veins and has a and a ? area

sympathetic

The nerves to the smooth muscle of all arteries and veins are ? nerves

sympathetic

When vasoconstriction is needed to raise BP, the arteries receive more ? impulses

sympathetic

When vasodilation is needed to lower BP, the arteries receive fewer ?

capillaries, time

Blood flow is slowest in ?, and this is important to permit ? for exchanges of materials.

increase, increase

During exercise, blood flow to the heart will ?, and blood flow to the skeletal muscles will ?

decrease, increase

During exercise, blood flow to the digestive tract will ?, and blood flow the the skin will ?

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