contains labels for countries and capital cities, as well as major physical features like plains, rivers,
the shape of the earth's surface is shown by contour lines; contour lines are imaginary lines that join points of equal elevation above sea level on the land's surface.
identifies continents and countries according to their political ideals.
depicts the meteorological conditions over a specific geographic area at a specific time.
a photograph of an area on earth taken from an aircraft flying overhead.
image of a larger region on earth taken by a satellite orbiting in space.
Mercator map projection
accurately shows shape and direction, but distorts distance and size of land masses.
shows correct size of land masses, but usually distorts their shapes.
a useful overall picture of the world; keeps correct size and shape of most continents and oceans,
true compass direction, usually circular, distorts scale, area and shape; usually used to show areas
a measurement, in degrees, of a location's distance east or west of the prime meridian.
a measurement, in degrees, of a location's distance north or south of the equator.
The International Dateline
an imaginary line that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole between Russia and Alaska which separates 2 consecutive calander days.
are great divisions of land on the globe; the large part of the surface of the earth that rises above sea level. There are 7 coninents
are the largest bodies of salt water between the continents; there are 5 oceans
are large bodies of salt water; smaller than oceans.
are large, natural streams of fresh water.
bodies of water, smaller than a gulf and nearly surrounded by land.
rows or chains of mountains. For example, the Himalayan mountain range, along India's northern border, is about 1,500 miles long and 5 miles high, and is the highest mountain range in the world.
a large, flat area that rises above the surrounding land; at least one side has a steep slope.
an elongated depression in the earth's surface, usually between ranges of hills or mountains.
an extensive area of level and rolling, treeless country, often covered by rich, fertile soil.
a region which is covered by perennial ice and snow; a large glacier forming on an extensive area of relitively level land, flowing outward from its center
a level and rolling treeless plain in artic and sub-artic regions with black mucky soil with permanently frozen subsoil, called permafrost
- a large, thick growth of trees and underbrush.
a large area of land covered with grasses.
a large, dry, barren region.
an area of land which is completely surrounded by water.
Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America. The largest is Asia.
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Artic and Antarctic (Southern). The largest is the Pacific.
Mediterranean, Sea of Japan, Arabian, Black, Red, East China, South China, Caribbean, Bering, Gulf of Mexico, Arabian, Sea of Okhotsk, Andaman and Hudson Bay
Africa: Nile (world's longest), Congo (5th longest), Niger (largest delta in Africa), Zambezi (famous for the Victoria Falls, one of the "Seven Natural Wonders of the World"); South America: Amazon (worlds 2nd longest river); United States: Missouri (longest in U.S.), Mississippi (2nd longest in US), Colorodo (famous for the grand canyon), Niagara (famous for its falls), Rio Grande (between US and Mexico), St. Lawrence (links Great Lakes and Atlantic ocean)
Major Mountain ranges
Asia: Himalaya - largest mountain range on earth, Mt. Everest is its highest peak (29,035 feet), Karakoram and Pamir; Europe: Alps, Caucasus, Carpathians, Pyrenees, Urals; Africa: Abyssinian, Atlas, Ruwenzori, Kilimanjaro (inactive volcano); North America: Rocky Mountains and Applachians; South America: Andes; Australia: Kosciusko
name originally applied to the Semitic peoples of the Arabian Peninsula; now used also for populations of countries whose primary language is Arabic (algeria, egypt, iraq, jordan, lebananon, libya, morocco, syria and yemen). In the 20th century, arab leaders have attempted to unite the arab speaking world into an arab nation. Since 1945 , most arab countries have joined the arab league. in 1982, memeber nations hada total population estimated at 43 million. Not all arabs are muslims. The culture of the arab world consists or the arab language, the islamic religion and the traditions of the arabian peninsula
- with 56 countries, the second-largest continent (after Asia), located south of Europe and bordered to the west by the atlantic ocean and to the east by the indian ocean. It is widely believed that the human race began here.
The Islamic states of North Africa became free during the 1950's and the 1960's. Algeria, egypt, libya, morocco, sudan, tunisia and western sahara
consists of the African countries located south of the Sahara desert.
extreme racial segregation was practiced by the white minority who controlled the government.
Spanish or Portuguese-speaking nations south of the U.S. chili, peru, brazil, mexico, bolivia, argentina, central america, carribean
he Caribbean Sea is in the Atlantic Ocean, bordered by the West Indies to the north and east, South america to the south, and central america to the west. popular vacation spots
third largest continent, comprising Mexico, the United States, Canada and Central America:
Mexico's northern border is the United States, to the west, the Pacific Ocean and to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and the caribbean sea.
a Constitution-based Federal Republic with a strong democratic tradition.
the southern most part of the North American continent, lying between Mexico and South America including belize, guatemala, el salvador, honduras, nicaragua and costa rica
Western European democratic governments: Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Belgium, luxembourg, Netherlands and Italy
the former Eastern Bloc, or Communist Europe.
countries include: Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, North Korea, China, and Mongolia.
after WWII, Japan became a powerhouse unexpectedly.
Taiwan and South Korea - both have developed prosperous and free societies.
Both these societies were anticommunist and had a parliament, however the government was run by one dominant party so during the 1970's they were not considered truly democratic. By the end of the 1970's, Taiwan began to truly democratize. South Korea remained authoratarian until 1989, when free elections took place.
After WWII, the Soviets and Americans divided Korea into North Korea and South Korea. North Korea came under soviet influence and became communist. Since the 1940's North Korea has become one of the most isolated and dictorial societies int he world. Kim Jong IL, North Korea's leader is an uncompromising Stalinist and is ruthlessly oppressive. N. Korea's economic collapse and its insistence on maintaining a huge military are threatening mass starvation for its people. In 2005, the government announced it had manufactured nuclear weapons and it is withdrawing froom negotiations with South Korea, China and US and other nations to disarm.
___is the largest communist population in the world.
South Central Asia
- countries include: Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Sri Lanka, Iran, Bangladesh, Kyrgystan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Bhutan, Maldives, Tajikistan, India, Napal and Turkmenistan.
has become a modern Islamic republic and a major regional power, having nuclear bomb capabilities. It is plauged by corruption, political repression and military rule although the current President Pervez Musharraf is an ally of the US in the war against terrorism.
was an Islamic oligarchy, but had its first democratic elections in 2004, after the defeat of the Taliban rulers
has a republic, authoritarian presidential rule.
has a republic authoritarian presidential rule.
is a republic.
has an Islamic theocratic republic.
has a parliamentary democracy.
has become the world's largest democracy and also a nuclear power.
a geographical subdivision of Asia which includes the following nations: Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the phillipines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. It is considered one of the poorest, most illiterate and malnourished nations in the world.
the islands of the southern, western and central Pacific Ocean, including Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.
a democratic, federal state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign.
because the Earth is closer to the Sun during parts of its elliptical orbit than at other times, and due to the Earth's tilt and rotation about its axis, we have different seasons on Earth.
occurs in the Northern Hemisphere on June 21 or 22. One of the Earth's poles is tilted directly toward the sun; areas north of the artic circle have 24 hours of daylight.
in the Northern Hemisphere this occurs on September 22 or 23; in the Southern Hemisphere this occurs on March 20 or 21. The earth is tilted sideways toward the sun so the hours of daylight and darkness are equal in both hemispheres.
In the Northern Hemisphere it is on December 21 or 22; areas north of the Arctic Circle have 24
the Earth's tilt is sideways toward the Sun and the hours of daylight are the same in both
is a region's usual long-term weather patterns. Average temperatures, amounts and kinds of precipitation,
the short-term state of the atmosphere at any particular time and place. Weather involves temperature, air
water overflows its natural or artificial banks into normally dry land. Floods are commonly caused by
periods of time when less rain than normal falls in an area. During droughts, crops fail and dried out soil
have a significant effect on plant, animal and human life. Snow increases the reflection of solar
tremors of the Earth's surface, sometimes violent and devastating, which result from shock waves
heory which explains the distribution of continents, earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains. Plates
Earthquakes create mountain ranges:
Mountain ranges are thought to form from tectonic plates colliding together and pushing the surface of the Earth
The Grand Canyon is a 5,000 foot deep gorge which was carved into the Earth's surface by the Colorado River, in
Located in California, Yosemite is famous for dramatic rock formations and water falls. Yosemite valley was created
occur in rural areas; the amount of land between each of the dwellings depends on the
tend to follow roads and river valleys which allows easy communication, and flat lands which
generally found located around ports, harbors and roads; they have a center, or "nucleus."
North Atlantic Treaty Organization - an international organization, formed in 1949, which includes the
Organization of African Unity
The Organization of African Unity was established in 1963. Originally 32
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries - an organization of about a dozen nations that sell oil to
A nation in which the average income is much lower than in industrialized/developed nations,
largest trading partner with the United States. 20% of all U.S. international trade.
Construction of houses, roads, and cities
In the U.S., about a million acres of farmland (an area half the size of
human-initiated fires for land clearing and land use can quickly develop into large-scale and
Water and air pollution:
Most water pollution is the result of human activities; wastes produced by households,
There are three methods of handling solid waste: burying, recycling, and burning.
Radioactive materials' effects on the environment:
In 1986, an explosion in a nuclear power station in Chernobyl, Ukraine, was the worst nuclear accident ever. Large
the transformation of arable, or habitable, land into desert, as by a change in climate, or by
there are two methods of logging: clear-cutting and selective cutting.
the process by which weathered particles are moved to another location.
the process of destroying a forest and replacing it with something else.
the term attached to the belief that the Earth's temperature is gradually increasing due to the
the ozone "hole" is a periodic depletion of the ozone layer that occurs over Antarctica in the
A natural resource is anything in the environment that is used by people.
any resource, such as wood, wind, water or solar energy, that can or will be replenished
natural resources that are not replaced in a useful time frame. As nonrenewable resources
An ecosystem is a collection of living things and the environment in which they live.
the Industrial revolution was a rapid industrial growth that began in
Conflicts in the Middle East:
The Middle East is the region in western Asia and northeast Africa that
Korea in the 1940's and 1950's and Vietnam in the 1960's and 1970's:
Looking at a map of North Korea and North Vietnam, you will notice that they are both right next to communist
Native Americans removed from their land to fulfill the Manifest Destiny:
In the 1800's, the newly built railroad trains brought merchants, miners, ranchers, and farmers from the settled East
is the period of time before people began writing.
The beginning of history can be traced back before the first human beings appeared about 3 billion years ago.
the name given to the Old Stone Age and the time period where most of human pre-history took place.
similar bone structure to us today. Probably our direct ancestors.
In Europe, another human species lived and adapted to life in the cold climates of the last Ice Age.
(wise man), became dominant. They made tools from stone and
the period of time about 10,000 B.C., also called the New Stone Age.
means between two rivers: Tigris and Euphrates. These rivers meet in southern Iraq.
Invention of writing:
Western writing first developed here in 3500 B.C. Writing was done with sticks on clay
Code of Hammurabi
a king in ancient Mesopotamia who was known for putting 282 laws of his country into a
3000 B.C. First city-states - each city acted as a state with its own special gods or goddesses, its own
soldiers fought mainly on foot, some rode in chariots drawn by wild donkeys.
Sumerians built temples to worship the gods. Slaves taken captive in war were
- brick makers fired bricks in kilns to produce building materials for structures that were
Alexander the Great:
King of Macedonia,Alexander the Great joined to help defeat the Persians that Athens and Sparta had been fighting together 490 - 479.
rich and cultured, astronomers, mathematics, thinkers, writers, artists, society with slaves.
Best Army, economy based on slave workers, no democracy, sports encouraged for both boys and girls, boys
Rome rose to power thanks to its fertile farmland, its army (best in Europe) and its key position in the
The Romans believed in many of the Gods the Greeks did but gave them Latin names.
The Roman Empire:
At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the west to Mesopotamia in the east. At its largest,
The decline and fall of the Roman empire
In the end, not even the Roman army could control such a huge empire. The
religion: means peace and submission. There is one God, Allah, and Mohammad is his prophet.
The first monotheistic (one-God) religion. Jews believe that Moses' prophecies are true and the Messiah
- Christians believe that there is one God and Jesus Christ was his son, a prophet. Jesus is called Christ
ancient India's first great religion. No unified systems of beliefs or ideas. There's only one supreme God
republic in southeast Asia, capital is New Delhi.
a division in society into groups of higher power and lower power socially.
religion of India that emphasizes freedom from the material world thru
A religion, founded by Buddha, that believes that the answer to human suffering lay not in worshipping
500 BC, a scholar named Confucius taught a system of "right behavior" which has influenced
a religion native to China, its adherents attempt to live according to the Tao - the "way" which
In theory, the emperor owned all the land and gave portions of the land to his leading nobles in
Shinto means the way of the gods and was the traditional religion of Japan.
the answer to human suffering lay not in worshipping gods, but in right thinking and selfdenial.
For 700 years, Japan was under the rule of the Japanese military leaders known as shoguns.
he male ruler of the Japanese empire.
Japanese soldiers who served the land owned by the lords (daimyos).
Africa south of the Sarah desert, the countries not part of North Africa. Also known as Black
Central America, biggest cities were in modern day Guatemala (south of Mexico), most powerful from
North America / Mexico. 1300 - 1520 They had two main cities, Tenochtitlan (Mexico city today) and Tlatelco. These two cities had a population of half
1300's - 1536 They built a huge empire in the Andes which grew to include 3,000 miles from north to
was the way of life that governed Medieval Europe for hundreds of years during the 9th century.
The Black Death:
1331 - 1430 A popular name for the bubonic plague and one of the greatest medical disasters in
allowed European sailors to carry muskets, pistols, and small artillery pieces that they could use against the less advance indigenous populations
was born in Venice, Italy. He was a Venetian merchant and adventurer who
sailed around the world in 1519 - 1522, sailed around the tip of South America,
Vasco da Gama
the first European to reach India by sea sailing around the tip of Africa.
Renaissance means "rebirth" or "reawakening",in the early 1300's, a cultural and intellectual revival began in parts of southern Europe, especially
Leonardo da Vinci
1452 - 1446, was a great Renaissance painter (the Mona Lisa) and an engineer (tried to make
472 - 1564, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, and poet who influenced
outstandingly versatile, well-rounded person.
Slave trade abolished
an American inventor, pioneered interchangeable parts.
a Scottish mechanic, developed the first cost-effective steam engine that changed the textile and coal mining
1789 - 1799The French helped America with the American Revolution causing them to go bankrupt.
American political philosopher, expressed negative opinions about African Americans and
an 18 century French philosopher who believed that in the state of nature, people are good but that they
a 17 century philosopher who argued that the government should depend on the consent of the
an intellectual movement of the 17 and 18 centuries marked by a celebration of the
During the end of the 1700's and first half of the 1800's, mass production of goods, goods made using machine
an American inventor, pioneered interchangeable parts and invented the cotton gin to clean raw
when a country extends its power and dominion, especially by direct territorial acquisition or by
First World War
1914-1918 In the late 19 century, rivalry between different nations in Europe increased. They competed with each other for
During World War I, Russia was allied with France and Britain. The Russian armies suffered defeats on the
1810 to 1823.They fought for independence from Spain and for social justice; they wanted equal rights for Indians, mestizos,
Worldwide economic depression in the 1930's
The end of WWI in 1918 left devastation across large areas of Europe and many countries were in economic chaosWhen the prices fell in October of 1929, people rushed to sell their stocks, but prices fell even further.
rose to power in the 1930's promising the suffering German people to make their
Rise of communism
In 1920 there were 23 governments in Europe that could be considered democratic and by 1939, right before WWII,
In the fall of 1917, Lenin and Trotsky overthrew the provisional governmentFrom 1921 until his death in 1924, Lenin tried to modernize the Soviet Union along Marxist lines..
In the fall of 1917, Lenin and Trotsky overthrew the provisional government.
began to modernize the Soviet Union with a 5-year plan. He tried to transform the USSR
a system of government that flourished in GerBoth communism and fascism are forms of Totalitarianism; fascism doesn't demand state ownership of many and Italy, from the 1920's to the end of WWII.
described his rule as Totalitarian, a 20 century form of dictatorship in which the regime, using modern
Nazism in Germany
The Nazi regime began to act against the Jews because they considered them the "undesirables".
Rise of Fascism in Japan
During the 1930's, increased imperial aggression by Europe and America and the effects of the Great Depression
World War II: 1939 - 1945
Truly a global war which was waged over 2/3 of the entire planet; every continent except Antarctica and South
12 million victims, 6 million Jewish and 6 million non-Jewish, were killed in the German campaign of racial
The Cold War
was a political war between USSR and its communist allies against the United States and other
After WWII, U.S., France and Britain formed the German Federal Republic (Western Germany) and the USSR
Collapse of the Soviet Union
Communism collapsed in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe during 1989 - 1991; the Cold War also ended during
called for economic reform and a greater emphasis on human rights throughout Eastern Europe.
A global economy:
The international spread of Capitalism in recent decades across national boundaries and with minimal restrictions by
the positive effects of atomic power are the possibility of obtaining energy from fusion/fission
the positive effects are that it shortened WWII and saved Allies lives. The negative side is that it
in order to send radio signals around the Earth, scientists developed communications satellites.
Computers, Internet and e-commerce
In the last 30 years, computers have revolutionized almost every aspect of modern-day life..
maintaining business relationships and selling info, service, and commodities by means of computer
the latest advances in technology use light instead of waves to transmit information. Glass fiber optic
the race to space started during the cold war when USSR and the US competed with each other to put
scientists have recently "cracked the genetic code" of the human genome, after an
Columbus hits island off coast of North America.
England's Cabot claims New World
American Natives, Iroquois, unite in Northeast. Plains Indians use horses to follow buffalo herds.
Spain's Ponce de Leon claims Florida and parts of the southwest
1523 - 1524
Verrazano establishes a French claim in North America
Virginia becomes first English colony
Hudson discovers Hudson river, NY, CT, NJ, and Delaware.
Pilgrims sign Mayflower Contract describing how they will be governed in Massachusetts.
13 English colonies
Benjamin Franklin tries to unite the colonies under the Albany Plan to provide an inter-colonial government
Boone explores Kentucky
Boston Tea party
Quakers established first anti-slavery group in
1775 - 1783
Declaration of Independence
Articles of Confederation
Constitution of U.S. and Bill of Rights
First President of U.S., George Washington
Whitney's cotton gin
Marbury v. Madison establishes judicial review
Lewis and Clark expedition
war of 1812, Britain v. U.S.
Democratic party arose
Gold discovered in California, first women's movement meeting, Mexican war
Harriet Tubman escapes slavery
Fugitive Slave Act
Dred Scott decision
First Republican President Lincoln
Civil War begins at Fort Sumter
Civil war ends when General Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse, Pres. Lincoln assassinated
Amendments 13 passed to protect African Americans
Spanish- American war
1904 - 1914
Panama Canal connects Atlantic with the Pacific ocean
1914 - 1918
World War I
Harlem Renaissance, Prohibition, 19th amendment - women can vote
1928 - 1940
The Great Depression
Roosevelt's New Deal
World War II comes to an end with atomic bomb
1950 - 1953
Desegregation, Brown v. Board of Ed
1954 - 1975
Martin Luther King's speech
voting rights to blacks
Vietnam war ends
Berlin wall falls, end of Cold War
World Wide Web
Anasazi (cliff dwellers)
"ancient ones" is the name given to the region where the 4 corners of Utah, Colorado,
a widely dispersed group of peoples in the Arctic region of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and
Northwest Indians (Kwakiutl)
occupied Vancouver Island, the adjacent mainland and the islands of British
The Great Plains is vast, treeless grassland in the middle of the US near the Mississippi River. Home to the ___ Indians
The Mound Builders
Around 200BC - 500 AD, many different Native American groups lived along the
Sometime in the 1500's, 5 different Northeastern Indian tribes united, later 1 more(living in the
In 1607,Virginia became the first English colony in America.
Ponce de Leon
sailed and discovered Florida and claimed it for Spain.
sailed to Mexico and in 1532 crushed the Aztec civilization.
traveled to Peru and conquered the Inca Empire. Cortez conquered South America.
first in history to sail around the world
-famous voyage to China in the late 1200's.
Captain John Smith
Organized Jamestown and imposed a harsh law "He who will not work shall not eat".
House of Burgesses
allowed white male property owners to vote.
Indians showed the Pilgrims how to plant corn, pumpkins, beans, how to hunt and fish. To give thanks for the
wanted to live in peace with the Indians, so rather than stealing their land, he offered to pay a fair
New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, centered on farming( large exports of grain).
did everything themselves: cleared field, planted, farmed the field, build house, furniture, fences.
many chores, took care of children, spun thread or yarn, sewed cloth into clothes, prepared and
neighbors, blacksmiths, carpenters, chimney sweeps, rope-makers, wheel-makers, barrel-makers,
African slaves were brought to the New World with the first colonists.
90% of colonists lived in rural areas.
The American Revolution 1775-1783
There were several causes for the American Revolution: a growing sense of patriotism and national identity,
The Seven Years War
1756 - 1763 it is also called the French and Indian War which is confusing because the
Sugar Act of 1764
The seven years war ran a huge debt for England who felt the colonists should help pay so the English parliament
The Currency Act
forbade colonists from issuing paper money.
an act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Parliament announces that they are in charge of the colonies
the Townsend Acts
a tax on glass, paper, lead, and tea.
Boston Massacre-March 5, 1770
conflict between colonists and British soldiers in which four colonists were killed
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
The Battle of Concord
is referred to as "the shot heard round the world" because colonial farmers just repelled the army of
wrote Common Sense where he argued for republicanism over a monarchy and colonial independence
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
quote from the Declaration of Independence:
"We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with
Articles of Confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states
Weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation
There were no separation of powers; the central government was too weak.
he felt that the colonists should help pay the debt from the seven year war and began passing taxation
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
1st President of the United States
printer whose success as an author led him to take up politics
The Constitution and the addition of The Bill of Rights:
"We the people of the U.S., in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility,
term-6 years, number of members-100, requirements- must be 30 and a U.S. citizen for 4 years, leaders- Vice President, duties- represent each state.
House of Representatives
must be 25, 7 years of citizenship, 2 year term, 435 members, speaker of the house, no limit on terms
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
The Bill of Rights:
the first ten amendments to the Constitution, dealing mostly with civil rights.
abolishes slavery in the U.S.
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
the highest federal court in the United States
set up a federal system, in which political authority was divided between the national government and the state governments. Provided a seperation of power between the legislative, judicial, and executive branches of government
The legislative branch of government, as described in Article I of the US Constitution, consisting of the House of Representatives and Senate. Primarily responsible for making laws.
organization that tries to influence gov. policy by promoting its ideas and backing candidates for office
Marbury v. Madison
supreme court case was the concept of judicial review
a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Brown vs. Board of Education
Stated in 1954 that it was unconstitutional to maintain separate black and white schools (5 words),
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Martin Luther King
United States charismatic civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of Blacks (1929-1968)
territorial acquisitions as settlers began moving westward beyond the Appalachian Mountains
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
Lewis and Clark expedition
an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Henry David Thoreau
Author of Walden who practiced ideas of transcendentalism.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Removal act of 1830
an act to provide for an exchange of lands with lands further west; the Indians were forced to
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
the act of abolishing a system or practice or institution (especially abolishing slavery)
the women's right to vote. The movement developed from the fight against slavery.
Fugitive Slave Act
was a law that was passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, between Southern slaveholding interests and Northern Free-Soilers. This was one of the most controversial acts of the 1850 compromise and heightened Northern fears of a 'slave power conspiracy'. "bloodhound law" Required all runaway slaves to be returned to their masters
The Dred Scott decision
Supreme Court decision in 1857 that ruled that slaves were property, not people, and Congress did not have the right to outlaw slavery in any territory.
16th President of the United States
The Gettysburg Address
speech by Lincoln after the battle of Gettysburg
President of the Confederate States of America
United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
William Lloyd Garrison
United States abolitionist who published an anti-slavery journal (1805-1879)
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
Harriet Beecher Stowe
United States writer of a novel about slavery that advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896)
abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
Plessy v. Ferguson:
court upheld segregation it ruled seperate but equal facilities did not violate the fourteenth ammendment.
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
an American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time.
a conviction that various religious, ethnic, racial, and political groups should be allowed to thrive in a
a term expressing the view that immigrants to the United States have been fused or melted into a
various cultures in a society merit equal respect and scholarly interest.
the formation of labor unions, during the 1880's, for the workers to receive better treatment by
1898 war between Spain and U.S.
connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean, built from 1904 - 1914.
was an American social activist and leading figure of the early woman's movement. is often credited with initiating the first organized woman's rights and woman's suffrage movements in the United States.
site of 1st Atomic Bomb, killing 70,000+ Japanese citizens
site of 2nd Atomic Bomb, killing 40,000+ Japanese citizens
Anyone born between 1946 and 1964 is part of the _____ generation
The Cuban missile Crisis:
When Kruchev tried to build nuclear bases in Cuba, the two superpowers were brought to the brink of war. This base was just 90 miles away from Florida and was a threat to the US. In 1962, President Kennedy declared a naval blockade of Cuba. In the end, Kruchev agreed to remove the missiles from Cuba.
became a synonym for public charges of disloyalty without sufficient regard for evidence.
In 1954, McCarthy accused the army of harboring Communists and they fought back in the Army-McCarthy hearings
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
Civil Rights movement
movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
An ideology that is dominated by concern for the environment but also promotes grassroots democracy, social justice, equal opportunity, nonviolence, respect for diversity, and feminism.
a system of obligations that bound lords and their subjects in Europe during much of the Middle Ages.
An economic and social system envisioned by the 19th century German scholar, Karl MarxIn theory, all means of production are owned in common, rather than by individuals..
rule by the people, helps prevent rule by cruels aristocrats, modern democracies don't fight wars with each other.
a system of government which power is divided between a national government (federal) and regional government.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
a political unit governed by a deity (or by officials thought to be divinely guided)
the branch of the United States government that has the power of legislating, The legislative branch creates the laws. There are two houses in it. One is the Senators. There are two senators per state. There is also a House of represenitives. The amount of people per state depends on how big the population is.
The judicial branch decides what the laws mean. For example: The law, don't litter implies on trash being thrown outside. But it does not consider throwing away a bitten piece of food.
The Executive Branch carries out the laws. A word for this would be "execute". The only member in this group is the president of the united states of america.
a group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress
the proceeding whereby a foreigner is granted citizenship
a smaller group of people who differ racially or politically or religiously, or economically from a larger
an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
generalized beliefs about what members of an identifiable group are like that operate as schemas when perceiving members of those groups
a principle or a way of behaving that is of a very high standard. Idealism is the belief that your ideals can be achieved, often when this doesn't seem likely to others.
a prejudice towards one particular point of view or ideology.
a hostile opinion about some person or class of persons.
to show favor or disfavor unjustly often based on prejudice and/or bias for or against a person or group of persons.
the growth of the person's ability to learn
a theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.
an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit
an economic theory advocating collective ownership of factories, mines and other businesses
is 0 degrees longitude, and it runs north and south through France and Africa
an imaginary circle around the Earth, equidistant from the North and South poles. it runs east and west through South America, Africa, and Indonesia, and it divides the Northern Hemisphere from the Southern Hempisphere.
government urled by a few; the power is exercised by a small and priveleged group for corrupt or selfish purposes