About 450 kcal
A woman needs how many extra calories per day during the third trimester of pregnancy?
25 - 35 lbs
A woman who is considered to have a healthy BMI should gain how much weight throughout a pregnancy?
The capacity of a woman to produce a normal ovum periodically and of a man to produce normal sperm; the ability to reproduce.
A birthweight less than 5.5 lb (2,500 grams).
Define Low Birthweight (LBW).
Probably poor health in the newborn and poor nutrition status of the mother during pregnancy.
What is LBW an indicator of?
6.5 to 9 lbs (3,000 to 4,000 grams).
What is the normal birthweight for a full-term infant?
Premature/Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA) & Small for Gestational Age (SGA).
What are the two categories of LBW babies?
Growth failure in the uterus.
What causes an infant to be small for gestational age?
Prepregnancy weight and weight gain during pregnancy.
Infant birthweight correlates directly with what?
What is teh most potent single predictor of the infant's future health and survival?
An Underweight Woman.
Which type of woman has a higher risk of delivering a low birthweight infant?
40 Times More Likely to Die.
LBW babies are how many times more likely to die in the first month of life compared to babies born at a healthy weight?
A pregnant woman should consume no more than how many ounces of caffiene per day?
What is the name of the bacteria that pregnant women need to be extra catious about?
Hotdogs, Deli Meats, Unpasturized Dairy Products (Feta & Bree), Sprouts, Meat Paste/Spreads, Etc.
Listeria can be found in what types of foods?
Swordfish, Shark, Tilefish, King Macord (?), Etc.
What types of seafood should be avoided by pregnant women?
A pregnant woman should consume no more than how many ounces of chunk light tuna per week?
During the first two weeks of pregnancy, the developing infant is referred to as a what?
During the first 2 - 8 weeks of pregnancy, the developing infant is referred to as a what?
Weeks 8 - Birth.
During which weeks is a developing infant referred to as a fetus?
6 - 9 lbs.
How much does the averga placenta weigh?
What percentage of all babies are born with low birthweights?
2x ( twice as likely to die)
Black Infants die at what rate compared to white infants?
A woman in the second trimester of a pregnancy needs to eat an additional how many calries per day?
A pregnant woman needs to increase her protein intake by how many grams per day?
To spare protein; For blood glucose.
Why would a pregnant woman need to increase her carbohydrate intake?
A pregnant woman needs to increase her Iron intake by ___ %.
A pregnant woman needs to increase her Folate intake by ___%.
Neural Tube Defect.
What does NTD stand for?
A lack of what causes NTD?
Can late folate intakes reverse the effects of NTD?
Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Phosphorus, Biotin, Calcium, & Flouride.
What nutrients do NOT need to be decreased in intake of a pregnant woman?
Protein, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Linoleic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Vitamin A, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid, B6, Folate, B12, Choline, Vitamin C, Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, Iodine, & Selenium.
What nutrients are needed in greater amounts during pregnancy?
Protein, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Linoleic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Pantothenic Acid, B6, Folate, B12, Choline, Vitamin C, Zinc, Iodine, & Slenium.
Which nutrients are increased during lactation?
Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, & Flouride.
Which nutrients neither decrease nor increase in need during lactation?
Which nutrient decreases in need during lactation?
False. They vary.
True or False: All prenatal vitamins have the same concentration of each nutrient.
Vitamin A & Calcium.
Prenatal vitamins do not contain 100% of the RDA for which two nutrients?
1. Young Women, 2. Those who are chronically ill/have a poor diet, 3. Severe Nausea & Vomitting, 4. Dietary Restrictions, 5. Drugs/Alcohol/Tobacco, 6. Underweight, 7. Multiples, & 8. Too little or too much weight gain during pregnancy.
Name the 8 categories of individuals who are at nutritional risk during pregnancy.
When an adolescent becomes pregnant, if they are ___ years after menarche, their nutritional needs are considered to be the same as an adults.
Low Weight Gain During Pregnancy.
What is a common problem with adolescent pregnancies?
Women, Infants, & Children.
What does WIC stand for?
Sponsored by the USDA for low income pregnant/lactating women, infants, & children under 5 years of age.
What is WIC?
1. Breastfeeding Promotion, 2. Immunization Referral, & 3. WIC Food Packages.
What are teh 3 components of WIC?
Food/Vouchers for specific foods, such as infant formula, milk, juice, cereal, eggs, legumes, peanut butter, carrots, etc.
What are WIC Food Packages?
1. Lowers incidence of infant mortality and LBW infants, 2. Reduces Medical Costs, #. Improves growth & development of infants and children.
What are the outcomes of WIC?
Is physical activity recommended during pregnancy?
No exercises that involve laying on the back should be preformed after which trimester of pregnancy?
True or False: No activities that increase body temperature or cause dehydrate should be preformed during any of a pregnancy.
28 - 40 lbs.
An individual with a BMI below 18.5 (Underweight) needs to gain how much weight during pregnancy?
25 - 35 lbs.
An indvidiual who has a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 (Normal Weight) needs to gain how much weight during pregnancy?
15 - 25 lbs.
An individual with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 (Overweight) needs to gain how much weight during pregnancy?
No less than 15 pounds.
An individual with a BMI above 30 (Obese) needs to gain how much weight during pregnancy?
35 - 45 lbs.
An individual who is pregnant with twins needs to gainhow much weight during the pregnancy?
1. African Americans & 2. Adolescents.
Which two groups of women should gain at the higher end of the recommended weight gain during pregnancy?
5 lbs., Over 1 lb per week.
In the first trimester, an underweight woman needs to gain how much weight? Second & third Trimesters?
3.5 lbs., About 1 lb per week.
In the first trimester, a normal weight woman needs to gain how much weight? Second & Third Trimesters?
2 lbs., about 2/3 of a pound per week.
In the first trimester, an overweight woman needs to gain how much weight? Second & Third Trimesters?
Increase in breast size accounts for what amount of weight gain?
Increase in mother's fluid volume accounts for what amount of weight gain?
The placenta accounts for ___ lbs.
The increase of blood supply to the placent accounts for ____ lbs.
The amniotic fluid accounts for ___ lbs.
7 - 8 lbs.
The infant at birth accounts for ____ - ____ lbs.
2 - 3 lbs.
The increase in the size of uterus and supporting muscles account for ___ - ___ lbs.
True or False: The mother's necessary fat stores depend upon the amount of other weight gained.
Hormone-induced changes in taste and smell.
During pregnancy, food cravings and aversions are due to what?
Due to pressure from growing fetus.
What causes heartburn in pregnant women?
1. Eat small, frequent meals with liquids between meals, 2. Wait one hour after eating before lying down, & 3. Avoid spicy, greasy food.
What are 3 ways that pregnant women can help to prevent heartburn?
Due to increased progesterone & smooth muslce relaxation of the GI tract.
What causes constipation in pregnant women?
Pregnant women should avoid the use of ________ ____ related to constipation.
Morning sickness is associated with increased levels of what?
To help morning sickness, eat _____ when waking up.
To help morning sickness, eat ___-____ meals and snacks.
Excessive vomiting, dehydration, ketonuria, weight loss of at least 5% or pre-pregnancy weight.
What is hyperemesis gravidarum?
Dehydration, fluid-electrolyte imbalance, hypotension, increased pulse, increased BUN, cardiac arrhythmias, starvation...
What are the signs/smptoms of hyperemesis gravidarum?
Small frequent meals of simple carbs, antiemetics, & IV fluids.
What is the outpatient treatment for Hyperemesis gravidarum?
NPO --> IV fluids --> antiemetic drugs, TPN --> progress to oral intake with clear liquids --> 6 small, dry feedings.
What is the inpatient treatment for hyperemesis gravidarum?
persistent eating of nonnutritive substances.
What is Pica?
Persistent eating of ice or freezer frost.
What is pagophagia?
Persistent eating of cornstarch & laundry starch.
What is amylophagia?
Persistent eating of clay or dirt.
What is geophagia?
Iron or Zinc.
Individuals who have pica are at an increased risk for having what type of deficiencies?
Abnormal blood-glucose due to hormonal changes or due to diabetes.
What is gestational diabetes?
What is the most common medical complication of pregnancy?
Obesity, Family History, Etc.
What are risk factors for gestational diabetes?
1 in 3
Of women who develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy, ___ in ____ develop type 2 diabetes lare on in life.
High Birthweight Infants & Surgical Deliveries.
What are the complications of gestational diabetes?
Hypertension, Whole-Body Edema, & Proteinuria.
What are symptoms of preeclampsia?
In the second half of the pregnancy.
When does preeclampsia occur?
First time pregnancies & Adolescents.
Which two groups are at risk for preeclampsia?
regulation of BP and prevention of convulsions.
What is the treatment for preeclampsia?
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Causes irreversible brain damage, physical retardation, facial abnormalities, & short stature.
What is FAS?
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
What is the leading preventable cause of mental retardation?
Cigarettes, Over-the-counter drugs (asprin & ibuprofin), Herbal supplements, illicit drugs, vitamin-mineral megadoses, & caffiene.
Besides alchol, what other practices/foods snould be avoided during pregnancy?
Too much what increases the risk of having a miscarriage?