APUSH Unit 14 IDs

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Washington Conference

first international conference held in the United States and the first disarmament conference in history.showed US isolationism under Harding

Kellog-Briand Pact

legal bases establishing the international norm that the use of military force is presumptively unlawful.

Stimson Doctrine

notes to China and Japan that incorporated a diplomatic approach used by earlier secretaries facing crises in the Far East

Isolationism

A national policy of abstaining from political or economic relations with other countries.US foreign policy prior to WWI

Charles A. Lindbergh

Celebrity hero who was the first to fly solo across the Atlantic in a small single engine plane. He success gripped the public's imagination.

America First Committee

foremost pressure group for the US not to enter WWII showed Americans not wanting to get involved in WWII

Johnson Act

forbade any countries that still owed the U.S. money from borrowing any more cash.

Tydings-McDuffie Act

for the independence of the Philippines. let Phillipines become free after 12 year transition time

Reciprocal Trade Agreements

The Act was designed to raise American exports and was aimed at both relief and recovery. it helped reverse the high-tariff policy

Neutrality Acts

The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent. This displayed that America was not willing to go to war and desired to remain neutral and isolationist.

Buenos Aires Conference

(1936) The U.S. government agreed to submit all disputes from the Americas to arbitration

Quarantine Speech

The speech was an act of condemnation of Japan's invasion of China in 1937 and called for Japan to be quarantined. FDR backed off the aggressive stance after criticism, but it showed that he was moving the country slowly out of isolationism.

Panay Incident

The Panay incident was when Japan bombed a American gunboat that was trying to help Americans overseas. This greatly strained U.S-Japanese relations and pushed the U.S further away from isolationism even though Japan apologized.

Maginot Line

The line was a series of fortifications on the Franco-German border designed to defense France in case of another German attack. This showed that France was reluctant to go to war and was relying on defense and not offense.

German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

The non-aggression pact was an agreement between Hitler and Stalin not to attack each other. This allowed for German victories in the west without worries of the east.

Four Freedoms Speech

A speech by FDR that outlined the four principles of freedom (speech, religion, from want, and from fear) This helped inspire Americans into patriotism.

Robin Moor and Reuben James

a merchant steamship and a Navy Destroyer that sailed under the American flag from 1919 until May 1941. German submarines sank these ships; This sinking of a neutral nation's ships in an area considered until then to be relatively safe from U-boats, and the plight of her crew and passengers, created an international uproar.

Lend-Lease Act

A government legislation that authorized the lending of arms and supplies to countries. It was a sign that the U.S was clearly no longer isolationist, and brought it closer to war.

Atlantic Charter

A secret meeting between FDR and Winston Churchill that discussed the war. Their public statement expressed their ideas of a postwar world, and frowned upon aggression, affirmed national self-determination, and endorsed the principles of collective security and disarmament.

Pearl Harbor

A naval base in Hawaii that was attacked by the Japanese. The attack forced the U.S to go to war.

Rosie the Riveter

A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.

War Production Board

Board that allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civil goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers. It provided the needed raw materials for the war effort.

Office of Price Administration

Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes in order to support the war effort and prevent inflation.

A. Phillip Randolph

He was the black leader of The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. He demanded equal opportunities in war jobs and armed forces during WWII. He helped encourage the end of segregation in the military, although that happened after the war.

Fair Employment Practices Commission

FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.

Casablanca Conference

A wartime conference held at Casablanca, Morocco that was attended by de Gaulle, Churchill, and FDR. The Allies demanded the unconditional surrender of the axis, agreed to aid the Soviets, agreed on the invasion Italy, and the joint leadership of the Free French by De Gaulle and Giraud.

Cairo Conference

A war time conference held at Cairo, Egypt that was attended by FDR, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-shek. It addressed the Allied position against Japan during WWII and made decisions about postwar Asia.

Tehran Conference

A war time conference held at Tehran, Iran that was attended by FDR, Churchill, and Stalin. It was the first meeting of the "Big Three" and it agreed on an opening of a second front (Overlord), and that the Soviet Union should enter the war against Japan after the end of the war in Europe.

Potsdam Conference

A war time conference held at Potsdam, Germany that was attended by Truman, Attlee, and Stalin. It agreed on the establishment of the Oder-Neisse line as the border of areas administrated by government of Poland, the expulsion of the German populations remaining beyond the borders of Germany, war reparations, reversion of all German annexations in Europe after 1937, statement of aims and means of the occupation of Germany, and the prosecution of Nazi war criminals. In addition, the Allies issued the Potsdam Declaration which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan.

Yalta Conference

A war time conference held at Yalta, USSR, that was attended by FDR, Churchill, Stalin. It agreed on the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany and it's occupation, status of Poland , citizens of the Soviet Union and of Yugoslavia were to be handed over to their respective countries, regardless of their consent, the United Nations once it was agreed that each of the five permanent members of the Security Council would have veto power, and Stalin's entry against Japan.

Quebec Conference

A war time conference held at Quebec,Canada that was attended by FDR, Churchill, and King and discussed war strategies. It agreed to increase the bombing offensive against Germany and continue the buildup of American forces in Britain resolved to remove Italy, operations in the Balkans should be limited to supplying guerrillas, to exhaust Japanese resources, cut their communications lines and secure forward bases from which the Japanese mainland could be attacked.

Manhattan Project

The Manhattan project was a secret research and development project of the U.S to develop the atomic bomb. Its success granted the U.S the bombs that ended the war with Japan as well as ushering the country into the atomic era.

Robert Oppenheimer

He a physicist who was the director of the Manhattan. Project. He helped to ensure the development of the atomic bomb before the axis.

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