Carbohydrates, fats and proteins

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Study guide for exam 2

Carbohydrate functions

Energy, particularly for the brain, nerves and lung tissue
Protein sparing
allows protein to build and repair
Glycogenolysis
Glyconeogenesis
Normal fat metabolism
Fiber
Variety and flavor
Lactose (Food for bacteria in intestinal tract)
makes: Biotin and vitamin K
Sterile bowel
Lactose intolerance

What cells only prefer to use carbohydrates for energy?

Brain, nervous and lung tissues use carbohydrates because it is easier to break down

Glycogenolysis

Breaking down glycogen

Glyconeogenesis

Making it glycogen by breaking down muscle

What do you need for normal fat metabolism?

You need O2 from carbohydrates

Major food sources for carbohydrates

Sugars, fruits, vegetables, milk and milk products, whole-grain breads and legumes

Monosaccharides that we absorb (3)

1) Glucose (Circulating cards in our general circulation, found mainly in fruits and vegetables)
2) Fructose (fruit sugar)
3) Galactose (Found in lactose and legumes)

Disaccharides (3)

(Two monosaccharides put together)
1) Sucrose (fructose+glucose, table sugar)
2) Lactose (glucose+ galactose, milk sugar, Dairy products more aged cheese has less lactose)
3) Maltose (glucose+ glucose, malt sugar, Added to food for flavor, in beer)

Polysaccharides

(Many monosaccharides)
1) Starch (Digestible storage form of carbohydrates in plants such as corn rice and potatoes, a straight chain glucose molecule)
2) Glycogen (Digestible storage form of carbohydrates in animals, branched chains of glucose molecules in liver and muscles)
3) Dextrin (Digestible short chains of glucose molecules added to foods to give foods a particular physical property, texture and body)
4) Fiber (Soluble and insoluble, not digestible, need 25 to 35 g of fiber per day)
Cellulose
Hemicellulose
Pectin (Whole grains that are not the same as fiber, soluble, can pull cholesterol to itself

Carbohydrates

Energy yielding nutrients that give us ATP
Hydrogen + oxygen
Abundant organic compound, grains
Three classifications: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides

Lactose intolerance

Means that their bodies do not make enough lactase enzyme to process the amount of lactose that they consume

Soluble fiber

Pulls cholesterol and and can remove it
Oats

Insoluble fiber

Better for peristalsis
whole-grains

What is food for bacteria in intestines?

Lactose

Fruit converts what to sugar?

Converts starch to sugar

Vegetables convert what to starch?

Sugar to starch as they ripen

Starch

Storage form of carbohydrates in plants

Glycogen

Storage form of carbohydrates in animals

Where does digestion of carbohydrates start?

In the mouth for starch
Digestion of starch is dependent on food's contact time with salivary amylase in mouth

Salivary Amylase

From the mouth, digests CHO
Breaks starch down into dextrins or maltose

What digestion happens in the stomach?

None, no digestion happens here, it is too acidic, bottom of the stomach has a sphincter that squirts food into small intestine and small amounts

Pancreatic amylase

From the pancreas, released in SI
Breaks down starch to maltose
digests CHO

Maltase

From the small intestine lining
Breaks down maltose to 2 glucose
End product digestion of starch
digests CHO

Sucrase

From the small intestine
Breaks down sucrose to glucose
and fructose
digests CHO

Lactase

From the small intestine
Breaks down lactose to glucose and galactose
digests CHO

End products of digestion of carbohydrates

Glucose, fructose and galactose

End products of metabolism of carbohydrates

Energy, ATP, CO2 and H20

When glycogen stores are full where is carbohydrates stored and in what form?

Carbohydrates converted to fat for storage

Sugar substitutes

(These are non-nutritive and do not have caloric value)
Saccharine (Sweet n Low)
Cyclamate (Not in USA)
Aspartame (Equal or NutraSweet)
Acesulfame K (Sweet One or Sunnette)
Sucralose (Splenda, Doesn't get into bloodstream)
Stevia (Natural, not FDA regulated, Do not use if immunosuppressed)

Sugar alcohols

(Nutritive, have caloric value)
Sorbito
Mannitl
Xylotol
Lactitol
Maltitol
Isomalt

Dental caries

When acid erodes tooth enamel
Host is teeth and mouth
Bacteria, most are supposed be there
Diet, keep acid down, carrot, apples, drink water, chewing gum
Oral bacteria+ sucrose= lactic acid (plaque forms in 13 min)
PH 6 to 5 (More acidic)

How many calories does 1 carbohydrate give?

4 calories

What is the most common type of diabetes?

Type 2 (Insulin resistance)

Diabetes and nutrition

Plan to eat at regular times, After five hours your body runs of glucose to use
Carbohydrate control intake
Include protein at meals and snacks
Control sugar intake within carb allowance

Which raises blood sugar more carbohydrates, fats, or proteins?

Carbohydrates

Which food group contains the most carbohydrates?

Grains

How many carbohydrates does 1 gram of fat give?

9 calories

Fat functions

Energy reserve
Satiety and palatability (Released from the stomach after 3 1/2 hours, 12 to 14 hours to metabolize)
Carrier of fat-soluble vitamins
Vitamins A, D, E, and K
Sources of essential fatty acids
Linoleic acid
Vegetable oils (soy corn, and safflower)
Lubrication, insulation and protection
Regulator cells
An essential body requirement
We only require linoleic acid- 2% of total calories when we have adequate carbohydrates and proteins

Saturated fatty acids

Has all simple bonds between carbon and hydrogen in a carbon chain

Unsaturated fatty acids

Has one or more double bonds between carbon and hydrogen in a carbon chain

Food sources that contain saturated fats

Beef, pork, balogna, salami, chicken skin
Whole milk, ice cream, yogurt, cheese
Palm and coconut oil, hard margarine, butter, cream cheese

Food sources that contain monounsaturated fats

Canola oil, olive oil, peanut oil, avocados, peanuts, almonds, peanut butter and olives

Food sources that contain polyunsaturated fats

Safflower oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil and cottonseed oil

Is cholesterol a fat?

No, and it is only found in animal products, Comes from the animals liver,our bodies also make this so vegetarians and vegans are okay

What type of fat is healthier to have in your diet?

Monounsaturated fats

Emulsification

Breaking down fat into tiny particles
Only a few foods have fats already broken down

Dyslipidemia

There's a problem with the carrying of fats in the blood

Emulsified foods

Homogenized milk, egg yolks, some salad dressings, yogurt, processed cheese, Cottage cheese and Jif peanut butter

Bile

A fat emulsifying agent made in the liver, stored in the bladder, and release in the SI

End products of the digestion of fats

Fatty acids and glycerol

What is an essential fatty acid?

Linoleic acid
Needs to come from the diet

What three things digest fats?

Bile (liver)
Pancreatic lipase (pancrea)
Intestinal lipase (SI)

What is storage of fat called?

Adipose tissue

End products of the metabolism of fats

Energy, ATP, CO2 and H20

Hydrogenation

Makes a fat more saturated and harder at room temp, exceptions are coconut and palm oils

Cholesterol

Made in the liver
Important precursor to vitamin D
7 dehydrocholesterol are converted to vitamin D the sun, helps absorb calcium and phosphorus
Corticoids, androgens, and estrogens (chemical base), bile (made from cholesterol)

AHA guidelines for fat in the diet

Healthy vs. Dyslipidemia
Total fat: 30% vs 25%
Saturated fat: 10% vs 7% (no more then)
Monounsaturated fat:10% vs 10%(at least)

Normal blood lipid values

Cholesterol: Below 200/ around 170
Triglyceride: Below 125
HDL: Above 60
LDL: Below 100/ around 70

Functions of proteins

build and repair body tissues
Potential source of energy
Formation of enzymes and hormones
Antibodies
Regulation of osmotic pressure
Maintenance of body neutrality

Major food sources of protein

All animal protein
Nuts and seeds

What is the difference between complete and incomplete proteins?

Amino acids
Complete contains all essential amino acids, Incomplete lack adequate mix and amount of amino acids

Incomplete proteins food sources

NOT an adequate mix and amount of amino acids essential for growth
All vegetable proteins except nuts and seeds, includes gelatin

Complete proteins food sources

Contains all essential amino acids essential for growth
This includes all animal proteins except gelatin, includes nuts and seeds

What is the difference between essential and nonessential amino acids?

Essential cannot be synthesized by the body at a rate sufficient for growth and maintenance, 9 of the 20 amino acids are essential.
Nonessential relies on nitrogen being available for the body to synthesize the other 11 needed.

What does high biological value refer to?

When a protein is of good quality or containing all essential amino acids, Capable of supporting growth
This includes all animal proteins except gelatin, nuts and seeds

What does a protein sparing food do?

A food that allows the body to derive energy from sources other than protein. Such sources can include fatty tissues, dietary fats and carbohydrates. This conserves muscle tissue.

What is the end products of digestion of proteins?

Amino acids

What is the end products of metabolism of proteins?

Energy, CO2, water, and urinary nitrogen

How much protein is needed for a healthy person per day?

0.8 gm/kg body wt
or at least 1/3 HBV protein

example:
160 lbs is 72.7 kg
72.7 kg x 0.8 = 58.1 grams of protein/day
58.1 / 3 = 19.39 HBV per day

Nitrogen balance

A measure of protein utilized by the body
The goal is intake equals excretion
If there is not enough nitrogen from a protein food source the body will break down muscle mass to obtain the necessary amino acids
3 nitrogen levels:
1) Nitrogen equilibrium: Enough for synthesis and replacement
2) Positive nitrogen balance: Retaining nitrogen for growth spurts, pregnancy or lactation
3) Negative nitrogen balance: More nitrogen is excreted and consumed, Stress, fever, starvation, infection, surgery

Kwashiorkor

Also called red boy disease that originated in Ghana when a baby was weaning, Protein malnutrition, edema in abdomen and extremities

Marasmus

Also called PCM (Protein and calorie malnutrition), Body consumes itself, Wasting away, Need to feed them small amounts at a time to build up enzymes

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