Human Development Chapter 5 Study Guide

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Chapter 5 Test Questions

Chomsky's "LAD" is a

device that enables children to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion as soon as they pick up enough words.

According to some behaviorists, children rely on _________ to rapidly acquire complex utterances.

imitation

Nativist Noam Chomsky believed that

Nativist Noam Chomsky believed that

In working memory, children actively apply ________ as they "work" on a limited amount of information.

mental strategies

Home-based early intervention for at-risk infants and toddlers

teaches parents how to stimulate young children's development.

Recall is more challenging than recognition because it

involves remembering a stimulus that is not present.

Babies everywhere start babbling at about the same age, but for babbling to develop further,

Babies everywhere start babbling at about the same age, but for babbling to develop further,

Baby Hannah is shown a stuffed sheep, and then it is hidden under a blanket. Which of the following is true?

Hannah must coordinate two schemes to retrieve the object: "pushing" aside the blanket and "grasping" the stuffed sheep.

According to Piaget, first schemes

lead to language and other cognitive developments.

According to Vygotsky, children master activities through

joint activities with more mature members of their society.

Unlike Piaget, who thought young babies constructed all mental representations out of sensorimotor activity, most researchers now believe that

infants have some built-in cognitive equipment for making sense of experience.

Today, infant mental tests are largely used for

Today, infant mental tests are largely used for

In Piaget's theory, each time the back-and-forth movement between equilibrium and disequilibrium occurs,

more effective schemes are produced.

In the violation-of-expectation method, __________ suggests that the infant is surprised by a deviation from physical reality.

heightened attention to an unexpected event

The circular reaction initially centers on

the infant's own body.

____________ are much better indicators than an early mental test score of how children will do later.

Warm, responsive parenting and a child's self-control

A researcher who believes that children are "prewired" to learn language endorses which statement?

language will "find a way"

According to Piaget, the balance between assimilation and accommodation

varies over time.

_______________ helps infants reduce the enormous amount of new information they encounter every day so they can learn and remember.

Categorization

In the information-processing system, information first enters

the sensory register.

According to the information-processing framework, __________ make more complex forms of thinking possible with age.

According to the information-processing framework, __________ make more complex forms of thinking possible with age.

In Piaget's theory, when children are in a state of disequilibrium,

cognitive change is rapid.

Professor Rellinger believes that babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems. Professor Rellinger's beliefs are consistent with the _________ perspective.

core knowledge

In the information-processing system, a special part of working memory, called the ____________, directs the flow of information.

central executive

During __________, children use their current schemes to interpret the external world, whereas in __________, children create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that their current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely.

assimilation; accommodation

According to the core knowledge perspective, each of an infant's ____________ permits a ready grasp of new, related information.

core domains of thought

At 8 months, Faye is in Piaget's ___________ stage of cognitive development.

sensorimotor

According to Piaget, a ___________ is a means of building schemes in which infants try to repeat chance motor behaviors again and again.

circular reaction

According to Vygotsky, ______________ is a range of tasks that a child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners.

the zone of proximal development

Infants and toddlers who often experience __________ comprehend more language, and produce meaningful gestures and words earlier.

Infants and toddlers who often experience __________ comprehend more language, and produce meaningful gestures and words earlier.

Good quality child care

can reduce the negative impact of a stressed, poverty-stricken home life.

Research on language acquisition indicates that

childhood is a sensitive period for language acquisition.

Core knowledge theorists assume that

infants start out life with a set of prewired understandings.

Research on infantile amnesia suggests that adults typically cannot remember events that happened during the first few years of life because

adults cannot translate early preverbal memories into language.

Which of the following is true about early intervention?

The strongest effects of early intervention occur at sites that offer a mix of center- and home-based services.

In Piaget's theory, when children are in a state of cognitive equilibrium,

they assimilate more than they accommodate.

According to the information-processing approach, the longer a person holds information in working memory, the

more likely it will transfer to the permanent knowledge base.

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