Formed by daughter cell pushing through a minute pore in the parent cell (i.e. Bipolaris)
Conidia formed on a tube or vase-shaped conidiogenous structure, a phialide (i.e. Penicillum, Aspergillus)
Conidia that are grown from inside a vase-shaped conidiogenous structure, an annellide (i.e. Scopulariopsis) BOWLING PIN
Conidium that arises from a hyphal element, is aseptate
Only used when with Macroconidia
Thick walled survival conidia, formed when unpleasant environment conditions exist
Conidium produced by fragmentation of hyphal strands through septation points. May be adjacent or have disjunter cells in between (i.e. Coccidioides immitis - disjuncter cells)
Only formed in ASEPTATE fungi, formed by internal cleavage of the contents of a sac called a sporangium. Supported on a base, COLUMELLA, on a stalk, SPORANGIOPHORE.
Sexual spore, where protrusions at the tip of the BASIDIUM form (Cryptococcus neoformans sexual stage)
Powdery colonies, flat and crumbly because of dense production of conidia
Granular colonial texture on agar plate
Waxy colonies, smooth surface because they produce no aerial mycelium... ussually yeasts
Glabrous colonial texture on agar plate
Deep furrows irregularly radiating from center of culture (like rays of the sun)
Rugose topography on agar plate
Phenol kills organisms, while lactic acid preserves fungal structures. Cotton blue stains chitin in fungal cell walls - permanent stain.
Lactophenol Cotton Blue (LPCB) wet mount
Potassium hydroxide will dissolve keratin in skin/hair/nail specimens, making fungal elements more visible
Potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation
Calcofuor white is taken up into the chitin of fungal cell walls and produces an apple green fluorescence - can be mixed with KOH prep too
Calcofluor White stain
Choice medium for general initial isolation - supports bacteria, fungi, dermatophytes, and yeasts
SABHI: Sabouraud Brain Heart Infusion Agar
Nutritionally richer than SABHI, should be reserved for normally sterile sites and anaerobic actinomycetes
BHIB: Brain Heart Infusion with Blood Agar
An acid pH 5.6 and nutritionally poor, inhibits growth of bacteria, but still basic media
SDA: Sabouraud Dextrose Agar
Blood is nutritious, and gentamicin and chlorampheicol inhibit bacteria. Nocardia and aerobic actinomycetes will not grow.
Brain Heart Infusion Agar with Blood, Gentamicin, and Chloramphenicol
Best used for fastidious fungal pathogens, Bacteria, aerobic actinomycetes and opportunists will not grow.
Brain Heart Infusion Agar with Blood, Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, and Cycloheximide
Contains antibiotics plus phenol red indicator. When dermatophytes grow, they change the color from yellow to RED.
DTM: Dermatophyte Test Medium
Media used to subculture yeasts because it has less glucose and a neutral pH compared to regular SDA
Neutral Sabouraud dextrose agar
Media used to subculture molds, it promotes sporulation and pigmentation of colonies
Potato dextrose agar
Most are rapid growers, saprobic (living on decaying matter in soil), and normally inhaled
3 Common properties of fungal opportunists
ASEPTATE, with BRANCHING SPORANGIOPHORES BETWEEN RHIZOIDS on the stolons. Sporangia are PEAR-SHAPED
Absidia sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - Cottony white colonies, becoming off-white to yellow with age. Grows at up to temps of 42C
Apophysomyces sp. culture
ASEPTATE? FUNNEL SHAPED COLUMELLA, FOOT CELLS at base of sporangiophores.
Apophysomyces sp. microscopic
ASEPTATE, single or BRANCING SPORANGIOPHORES with round sporangia. NO RHIZOIDS OR STOLONS
Mucor sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - white, dense, cottony aerial hyphae rapid growth, with ag become dotted with brown/black sporangia
Rhizopus sp. culture
ASEPTATE, UNBRANCHED SPORANGIOPHORES arise OPPOSITE RHIZOIDS at the nodes. STOLONS connect the groups of rhizoids
Rhizopus sp. microscopic
ASEPTATE, FLASK-SHAPED SPORANGIA, RHIZOIDS are produced opposite the sporangiophores
Saksenaea sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - White cottony rapid growth, turning gray with age. May grow at 42C also.
Cunninghamella sp. culture
ASEPTATE, sporangiophores terminate in VESICLES(swollen cells) on which one celled sporangia form at the tips of DENTICLES (toothpick-like projections)
Cunninghamella sp. microscopic
ASEPTATE, sporangiophores terminate in VESICLES(swollen cells) surrounded by sporangia with rows of sporangiospores, looks like a SUNFLOWER
Syncephalastrum sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - light gray, woolly rapidly matures to dark green/black or brown with black reverse
Alternaria sp. culture
DARK, CHAINED POROCONIDIA which have HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL SEPTA. (#alternate)
Alternaria sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - initially shiny white yeastlike -> with age, become shiny black and leathery with white fringe BLACK YEAST
Aureobasidium sp. culture
Light to DARK brown conidiophores are NOT differentiated from hyphae. Short denticles support hyaline conidia. (Looks like Nostoc)
Aureobasidium sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - at first is velvety grayish-brown and later the center becomes matted black, reverse is light or dark
Bipolaris sp. culture
DARK hyphae, CYLINDRICAL four or five celled POROCONIDIA along a BENT KNEE CONIDIOPHORE (#power rangers outfits)
Bipolaris sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - 7 days, powdery heaped and folded dark gray-green with black reverse.
Cladosporium sp. culture
DARK septate hyphae, short chains of BLASTOCONIDIA with distinct SCAR at point of attachment. Bourne from SHIELD CELLS
Cladosporium sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - cottony, white, light pink, orange, or green, with brown reverse
Curvularia sp. culture
Dark septate, BENT KNEE CONIDIOPHORE with POROCONIDIA that have an OVER ENLARGED CENTRAL CELL (#orange slices)
Curvularia sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - light gray woolly, with age becomes dark gray/black with a black reverse
Exserohilum sp. culture
DARK septate, long CYLINDRICAL POROCONIDIA with 6 to 14 cells and distinct, protruding TRUNCATE HILA(points of attachment)
Exserohilum sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - colonial rings of yellow, orange, and brown- pigments of the same color may diffuse in agar
Epicoccum sp. culture
Thick clusters of SPORODCHIA(short conidiophores) support DARK round conidia with unconstricted HORIZONTAL and VERTICAL SEPTA.
Epicoccum sp. microscopic
Dark hyphae. SHORT,FAT CONIDIOPHORES support SINGLE oval BLACK CONIDIA at tips
Nigrospora sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - wrinkled, white/gray/rose, reverse is colorless/pale yellow/pinkish
Acremonium sp. culture
LIGHT septate hyphae, unbranched TAPERING CONIDIOPHORES support closely packed BALLS of sickle shaped CONIDIA
Acremonium sp. microscopic
Colony is rugose ad velvety, many different colors depending on dense conidia production: blue, green, yellow, black, and white
Aspergillus sp. culture
Light septate, unbranched conidiophores with FOOT CELL support a large VESICLE, which supports flask shaped PHIALIDES in a SINGLE or DOUBLE ROW, which produce CHAINS of PHIALOCONIDIA
Aspergillus sp. microscopic
UNISERIATE, phialides usually only on upper 2/3 of vesicle, parallel to axis of conidiophore
Aspergillus fumigatus microscopic
Conidiophore is ROUGH, PITTED, SPINY
Uniserate and Biserate,phialides cover entire vesicle, point out in all directions
Aspergillus flavus microscopic
SABHI room temp - heaped, velvety, buff colored, with white/yellow/reddish brown reverse (looks like a brain)
Chrysosporium sp. culture
Light septate, SINGLE round to club shaped CONIDIA perch on top of SHORT CONIDIOPHORES, poorly differentiated from vegetative mycelium
Chrysosporium sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - white at first, woolly/cottony, later becomes LAVENDER, or yellow/orange with a light reverse
Fusarium sp. culture
Light septate, MICROPHIALOCONIDIA are one celled and occur in BALLS on conidiophores. MACROPHIALOCONIDIA are two to five celled BANANA or CYLINDRICAL SHAPED "fusiform"
Fusarium sp. microscopic
Brushlike conidiophores with flask shaped PHIALIDES which produce masses of PHIALOCONIDIA are held together in a LARGE BALL by a matrix
Gliocladium sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - powdery,velvety, or cottony colony, OLIVE TAN color, may be shades of violet or brown
Paecilomyces sp. culture
Light septate, penicillus type ELONGATED PHIALIDES bear CHAINS of hyaline or pigmented OVAL CONIDIA
Paecilomyces sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - Powdery BLUE GREEN with a WHITE PERIPHERY and colorless reverse
Penicillium sp. culture
Light septate, PENICILLI bear flask shaped PHIALIDES which support CHAINS of ROUND PHIALOCONIDIA
Penicillium sp. microscopic
SABHI room tem - finely wrinkled surface and DARK RED pigment that diffuses in agar.
Blood agar 37C - Yeastlike colonies, grayish white, waxy and attached to surface.
Penicillium marneffei culture
Conidiophores bear up to 5 METULAE (branched conidophores) with WIDE PHIALIDES that taper to narrow apices with CHAINS of smooth, lemon shaped PHIALOCONIDIA
Penicillium marneffei microscopic
SABHI room temp - velvety, rugose and white, later becoming light tan or brown with a tan reverse
Scopulariopsis sp. culture
Light septate, ANNELLOPHORES bear bowling pin shaped ANNELLIDES with CHAINS of large LEMON SHAPED ANNELLOCONIDIA, with age, become spiny
Scopulariopsis sp. microscopic
SABHI room temp - waxy/white becomes velvety and lemon colored with a peripheral fringe, white reverse
Sepedonium sp. culture
SINGLE or clustered, THICK WALLED, SMOOTH TO ROUGH MACROCONIDIA form at ends of conidiophores, not well differentiated from vegetative mycelium.
May be confused with H. capsulatum
Sepedonium sp. microscopic
Yeast portion: DARK one to two celled blastoconidia
Mold portion: blastoconidia form along hyphae in large clusters, or in small clusters, or from ANNELLIDES with CLUSTERS or chains of ANNELLOCONIDIA
Exophiala werneckii microscopic
Caused by Malassezia furfur
Asymtomatic skin infection, scaly patches of different colors: reddish brown, brown, white. Fluoresce under wood's lamp
In KOH stains, thick round to oval cells in clusters with short, angular hyphae SPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLS
Malassezia furfur microscopic
SABHI room temp - slowly - compact, greenish black, heaped, glabrous colony
Piedraia hortai culture
DARK, THICK WALLED HYPHAE with SWELLINGS, asci with ascospores may be present
Piedraia hortai microscopic
Caused by Piedraia hortai.
Firmly attached, black nodules around the outside of scalp hairs.
Caused by Trichosporon beigelii.
Light brown, soft nodules around beard and mustache hairs.
Hyaline hyphae with BLASTOCONIDIA nd ARTHROCONIDIA. Additional biochemical tests needed.
Trichosporon beigelii microscopic
Dermatophyte slow growers
SABHI room temp - matted to velvety light tan, with a REVERSE of SALMON
Poor growth on RICE GRAINS, other Microsporum grow well
Microsporun audouinii culture
Raquet hyphae, nodular bodies, and TERMINAL, POINTED VESCILES are most commonly found
Microsporum audouinii microscopic
SABHI room temp - white, woolly with a buff to brown center and bright yellow periphery, REVERSE is BRIGHT YELLOW to YELLOW ORANGE
Contracted from cats/dogs commonly
Microsporum canis culture
Numerous ROUGH, THICK WALLED, SPINDLE SHAPED MACROCONIDIA with 6 to 15 cells
Microsporum canis microscopic
SABHI room temp - powdery BUFF to CINNAMON colony with tan reverse
Contracted through soil
Microsporum gypseum culture
Numerous ROUGH, THIN WALLED, ELLIPTICAL MACROCONIDIA with 4 to 6 cells
Microsporum gypseum microscopic
SABHI room temp - velvety, KHAKI YELLOW colony with tan reverse
Causes athlete's foot.
Epidermophyton floccosum culture
CLUB SHAPED, smooth, thin walled, MACROCONIDIA with 2 to 4 cells. NO MICROCONIDIA!
Epidermophyton floccosum microscopic
SABHI room temp - fluffy white with colorless/tan reverse OR granular buff/rose-tan with brown/red/yellow reverse
Most common cause of athlete's foot
Trichophyton mentagrophytes culture
SABHI room temp - granular/fluffy white with pink periphery and DEEP RED REVERSE
Produces red pigment in agar
Trichophyton rubrum culture
Numerous smooth walled, pencil shaped macroconidia with 3 to 8 cells. Numerous CLUB SHAPED MICROCONIDIA borne singly along hyphae.
Trichophyton rubrum microscopic
SABHI w/yeast extract 37C - heaped, waxy, white/bright yellow with yellow reverse
Usually acquired from contact with cattle.
Trichophyton verrucosum culture
On SABHI, only chlamydoconidia are produced.
On thiamine enriched, RAT TAIL MACROCONIDIA with 3 to 5 cells
Trichophyton verrucosum microscopic
SABHI room temp - waxy, heaped, light yellow/buff with colorless/yellow orange reverse
Causes severe scalp disease called FAVUS
Trichophyton schoenleinii culture
FAVIC CHANDELIERS are most prevalent feature, No macroconidia
Trichophyton schoenleinii microscopic
SABHI room temp - waxy/suede VIOLET,heaped colony with violet reverse
Trichophyton violaceum culture
CHLAMYDOCONIDIA IN CHAINS and hyphal swellings observed. No macroconidia.
Trichophyton violaceum microscopic
Clamydospores: terminal, THICK WALLED
Blastoconidia: CLUSTERS AT SEPTA of Pseudohyphae
Candida albicans microscopic morphology on Corn-meal Tween 80 agar
Clamydospores: terminal THIN WALLED
Blastoconidia: SINGLE or short chained anywhere along Pseudohyphae
Candida tropicalis microscopic morphology on Corn-meal Tween 80 agar
Blastconidia: Oval in chains from the septa of thin Pseudohyphae OR clusters of numerous blastos at septa of short pseudohyphae
Candida guilliermondi microscopic morphology on Corn-meal Tween 80 agar
Blastoconidia: Tree like branching from the septa of elongated Pseudohyphae
Candida krusei microscopic morphology on Corn-meal Tween 80 agar
Blastoconidia: Few single or small clustered blastos at or between THIN CURVED Pseudohyphae
Candidia parapsilosis microscopic morphology on Corn-meal Tween 80 agar
Blastoconidia: Chains of elongated blastos at septa of BRANCHED Pseudohyphae
"LOGS IN A STREAM"
Candida pseudotropicalis microscopic morphology on Corn-meal Tween 80 agar
Cryptococcus neoformans produces dark brown colonies after 2 to 3 days, whereas other Cryptococcus sp. do not
(Niger seed/Caffeic acid)
Arthroconidia and true hyphae. No blastoconidia.
Geotrichum sp. microscopic morphology on Corn-meal Tween 80 agar
Arthroconidia and true hyphae. Blastoconidia produced, hard to find.
Trichosporon sp. microscopic morphology on Corn-meal Tween 80 agar
SABHI room temp - SLOW GROWING BLACK colonies develop dark velvety mycelium
Cladosporium carrionii culture
Dark hyphae - conidiophores support REPEATLY BRANCHING SHORT CHAINS OF BLASTOCONIDIA
Cladosporium carrionii microscopic
SABHI room temp - black compact colony forms MODERATELY RAPIDLY with black reverse
GROWS AT 42C
Cladosporium trichoides culture
Dark hyphae - conidiophores support SPARESLY BRANCHING CHAINS OF BLASTOCONIDIA
Cladosporium trichoides microscopic
SABHI room temp - VERY SLOW GROWING small BLACK colony develops dark velvety mycelium
Fonsecaea compacta culture
Dark hyphae - at tip of conidiophores, PRIMARY blastoconidia support 1 to 4 SECONDARY conidia which produce 1 to 4 TERTIARY conidia -> COMPACT CONIDIAL HEADS
Multiple arrangements of conidia
Fonsecaea compacta microscopic
SABHI room temp - SLOW GROWING BLACK colony with dark olive/black aerial mycelium
Fonsecaea pedrosoi culture
Dark hyphae - at tip of conidiophores, PRIMARY blastoconidia support 1 to 4 SECONDARY conidia which produce 1 to 4 TERTIARY conidia -> LOOSELY ORGANIZED CONIDIAL HEADS
Multiple arrangements of conidia
Fonsecaea pedrosoi microscopic
SABHI room temp - SLOW GROWING BLACK colony with matted dark mycelium
Phialophora verrucosa culture
Dark hyphae - FLASK SHAPED phalides with CUP SHAPED COLLARETTE with TERMINAL BALLS of oval PHIALOCONIDIA
Phialophora verrucosa microscopic
SABHI room temp - BLACK YEAST forms and develops dark velvety mycelium
Exophiala jeanselmei culture
ANNELLIDES on annellophores produce CLUSTERS of oval ANNELLOCONDIA at the tips
Exophiala jeanselmei microscopic
SABHI room temp - shiny BLACK and YEASTY colony, with time, develops a periphery of dark velvety mycelium
GROWS AT 42C
Wangiella dermatitidis cultue
Tubelike PHIALIDES without collarettes or annellations elicit BALLS of CONIDIA
Wangiella dermatitidis microscopic
SABHI room temp - white fluffy colony which turns gray with gray reverse
Scedosporium apiospermum culture
SINGLE or small clustered, oval ANNELLOCONIDIA are TERMINALLY produced on annellophores
CLEISTOTHECIA may be seen 50-200um in diameter (sexual stage containing ascospores)
Scedosporium apiospermum microscopic
SABHI room temp - white fluffy colony which turns gray with gray reverse
Scedosporium prolificans culture
Hyaline hyphae, annellophores bear CLUMPS of oval ANNELLOCONIDIA
Scedosporium prolificans microscopic
SABHI room temp - DIMORPHIC fungus forms a cream colored, wrinkled, leathery colony which may later turn black.
Yeast colonies are white to cream colored
Sporothrix schenckii culture
MOLD: DAISY HEAD- small oval conidia arranged around head of conidiophore.
YEAST: CIGAR BODIES, elliptical budding cells
Sporothrix schenckii microscopic
Caused by Sporothrix schenckii
Results from puncture wounds with contaminated materials like ROSE THORNS, hay, or wood.
SABHI room temp - yeastlike colony initially forms, later the center becomes prickly and then the entire colony is fluffy white or tan
BHIB @37C - waxy, wrinkled, cream to tan colored
Blastomyces dermatitidis culture
MOLD: SINGLE smooth walled, round/oval CONIDIA at the ENDS of short conidiophores or on hyphae
YEAST: large, round, THICK WALLED, SINGLE BUDDING cells with BROAD ISTHMUS
Blastomyces dermatitidis microscopic
Caused by Blastomyces dermititidis
Observed south of Ohio river and east of Mississippi river, INHALED, produced mild chronic resp infection. BLOOD STREAKED, PURULENT sputum.
SABHI room temp OR 37C - moist white colony forms, later covered with white fluffy mycelium.
Coccidioides immitis culture
Hyphal branching at 90 degree angles, and many THICK WALLED, BARREL SHAPED, ARTHROCONIDIA ALTERNATING WITH EMPTY DISJUNCTER CELLS.
Tissue phase - THICK WALLED SPHERULES with small ENDOSPORES
Coccidioides immitus microscopic
Caused by Coccidioides immitus
"San Joaquin Fever"
Endemic is desert areas of southwest US
Arthroconidia reside in soil, are inhaled.
Seen severe in AIDS patients
BHIB room temp - slow growing colony initially moist, then develops a low, white to brown mycelium.
BHIB @37C - rough, mucoid, cream to tan
Histoplasma capsulatum culture
MOLD: conidiophores support large round MACROCONIDIA with TUBERCULATE EDGES. Small round, teardrop MICROCONIDIA along sides of hyphae.
YEAST: SMALL, single budding cells
Histoplasma capsulatum microscopic
Caused by Histoplasma capsulatum
Endemic to Mississippi river and Ohio river areas.
Acquired from BIRD DROPPINGS, BAT GUANO, fungus lives in bat intestines.
SABHI room temp - colonies grow slow, smooth at first, later covered with white to tan aerial mycelium
BHIB @37C - waxy, wrinkled, and cream to tan colored
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis culture
MOLD: hyphae with chlamydoconidia interspersed
YEAST: "SHIPS WHEEL" large, THICK WALLED MULTIPLE BUDDING yeast cells
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis microscopic