General Psychology Modules 11- 12

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An activity for anyone to study General Psychology Modules 11-12. Chinelo Ibe General Psychology Diana Riser

Behavior Genetics

The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.

Molecular geneticists

Identifying the specific genes that contribute to alcoholism would be of most direct interest to:

C. Evolutionary psychology

Your sister has an independent study proposal due next week, and she has asked you for help deciding on a topic. She is interested in studying what makes humans so similar to each other. On which of the following subfields of psychology would you recommend she focus?
A. molecular genetics
B. biological psychology
C. evolutionary psychology
D. clinical neuropsychology

Chromosomes

Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.

Identical Twins

Twins who develop from a single (monozygotic) fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.

B. A young woman marries a successful middle-aged man.

Which of the following pairings can be most easily explained by evolutionary psychology?
A. A young man marries a wealthy middle-aged widow.
B. A young woman marries a successful middle-aged man.
C. A young man marries a fertile woman who has two children by a previous partner.
D. A young woman marries her high school sweetheart.

Gender

In psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.

C. Personality traits

Adoptive parents are least likely to influence the _____________ of their adopted children.
A. religious beliefs
B. political attitudes
C. personality traits
D. moral values

Evolutionary Psychology

The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.

Heritability

The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.

B. Mutation

Martha's child was born with an extra chromosome resulting in Down syndrome. This is an example of a(n):
A. natural selection.
B. mutation.
C. heritability.
D. collectivism.

A. Fraternal twins recall greater variations in their early family life.

Jane and Sarah are fraternal twins reared in the same family. Jane has warm feelings toward her parents while Sarah has less than a positive view of her father. Why?
A. fraternal twins recall greater variations in their early family life.
B. fraternal twins recall lower variations in their early family life.
C. fraternal twins forget greater variations in their later family life.
D. fraternal twins forget greater variations in their early family life.

Natural Selection

The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

Temperament

A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.

B. Put at a table with a group of children who like it.

According to researchers, preschoolers who dislike a certain food despite their parent's urging often will eat the food if:
A. put at a table with a group of adults who like it.
B. put at a table with a group of children who like it.
C. put at a table with a group of older children who like it.
D. put at a table with a group of teenagers who like it.

Culture

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

B. Her exposure to excess testosterone caused her to act more like a boy.

Shara is genetically female, but was exposed to excess testosterone during prenatal development. As a young girl, she was often described as a "tomboy." She would dress and play in a way more typical of boys than girls. What is the MOST LIKELY reason for this?
A. She thought "girl toys" were boring.
B. Her exposure to excess testosterone caused her to act more like a boy.
C. Though most people treated her like a girl, she rejected typical female gender roles.
D. Her gender schema caused her to act more like a boy.

Gender Identity

Our sense of being male or female.

B. Language

Among humans, innovations in behavior and ideas are preserved and transmitted from one generation to another primarily through:
A. division of labor.
B. language.
C. norms.
D. collectivism.

B. Collectivist

Workers at the Ito motor plant are willing to work long hours and put the company's success ahead of their own as they are from a __________________ culture.
A. mixed
B. collectivist
C. individualistic
D. unique

D. Depression and anxiety

Compared to women, men are less vulnerable to:
A. autism.
B. alcoholism.
C. hyperactivity in childhood.
D. depression and anxiety.

Collectivism

Giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.

Social learning theory

The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.

Transgender

An umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex.

A. Two years

The average woman enters puberty __________ sooner than the average man.
A. two years
B. four years
C. one year
D. three years

Norm

An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.

C. Somewhat unusual, because most boys his age typically play in large groups and do not engage in intimate discussion.

Nine-year-old Jared has one very good friend. The two boys spend a great deal of time playing one-on-one basketball, and often can be heard talking to each other about a wide range of topics. Compared to other boys his age, Jared is:
A. not unusual, because most boys his age often play with one friend.
B. somewhat unusual, because most boys his age typically play with girls in small groups.
C. somewhat unusual, because most boys his age typically play in large groups and do not engage in intimate discussion.
D. not unusual, because most boys his age often do not play competitively.

Individualism

Giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.

A. Personal Space

Standing at a distance from your professor, but close to your friend is an example of:
A. personal space.
B. culture.
C. confirmations.
D. norms.

Epigenetics

The study of influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change.

Aggression

Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.

Interaction

The interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity).

C. They were raised in deprived environments.

Karen is a research assistant at the University Psychology lab and finds that the mice cortexes she is studying are thinner and lighter. What happened?
A. They were all mutations.
B. Their cortical abnormalities are due to the enriched environments.
C. They were raised in deprived environments.
D. They were all born prematurely.

Gender-typing

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.

Genes

The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.

Role

A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.

Testosterone

The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.

Molecular genetics

The subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.

Environment

Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.

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