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Anarchism

Code world in the public mind for terrorism and violence, even though most anarchists were relatively peaceful visionaries dreaming of a new social order. For next 30yrs, remained one of most frighteing conceps in American middle-class imagination; also constatn obstacle to goals of AFL &other labor orgs; Unions always vulnerable to these accusations b/c of violent strikes

Communism

Started by Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto, futile period is superseded by capitalism which leads to communism, creates labor class

Capitalism

A system of economic production based on the private ownership of property and the contractual exchange for profit of goods, labor, ad money.

Socialism

Government system where transferred control over industry from a few industrialists to laboring masses. Socialists believed this would keep wealthy elites from control over society. Greatly influenced progressives

Nationalism

a devotion to the interests of the nation over one's region or state; characteristic of 1812-1850

Jingoism

Jingoism is aggressive, nationalistic and patriotic expansion. Theodore Roosevelt, among many others, believed in this extreme form of expansion.

Nativism

favoring native-born Americans and cultural over that of recent immigrants; often manifested in ethnic tensions and discrimination; characteristic of the 1840s (towards Irish-Americans), the Gilded Age (towards Eastern Europeans and Asians= Chinese Exclusion Act), and the 1920s (towards Eastern Europeans and Asians= National Origins Act)

Sectionalism

placing the interests of one's state or region ahead of the interests of the nation as a whole; dominant in the 1850s and a fundamental cause of the Civil War

Transcendentalism

a philosophical and literary movement of the 1830s and 1840s that emphasized living a simple life close to nature in order to find truth; Emerson's Nature and Thoreau's Walden and Civil Disobedience are important transcendentalist texts. a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.

Deism

Deism is not a religion, but a religious philosophy. It advances the theory that God exists, that He created the universe, but does not intervene in the affairs of humankind. Deism emerged during the Enlightenment in the 17th and 18th centuries; B. Franklin and T. Jefferson were prominent Deists

Federalism

strong central government provided by power divided between state and national governments, checks and balances, amendable constitution

Revivalism

in a Christian context generally refers to a specific period of spiritual renewal in the life of the Church. While elements such as mass conversions and perceived beneficial effects on the moral climate of a given

Protestantism

American Protestantism was dominated by "liberal" denominations that adapted religious ideas to modern culture and promoted a "social gospel" rather than biblical literalism. Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Association. Walter Rauschenbusch: Leading Protestant advocate of the "social gospel"

Rationalism

Heavily influenced by the Enlightenment, rationalists criticized most traditional religion as irrational and thus unfounded. Proponents of rationalism held that religious beliefs should not simply be accepted but should instead be acquired through investigation and reflection.

Social Darwinism

new social theory during the Gilded Age: only the fittest individuals survived in the marketplace and the poor were poor because of their own shortcomings; rationale used by the industrial capitalists/robber barons. natural selection applied to humancompetition, advocated by
Herbert Spencer, William Graham Sumner

Mercantilism

the 17th and 18th century economic system under which European nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining colonial resources and establishing a favorable balance of trade; the Acts of Trade and Navigation were meant to reinforce this system in the English colonies

Catholicism

Religion headed by the pope; worship is centered in the gospel of Jesus Christ and the sacraments; the beliefs and practices of a Catholic Church; maryland; irish; looked down on in colonial times

Populism

gold standard (1900) defeats them,
racism in the south :populist movements were biracial, southerners felt threatened by black power, push harder to limit political rights
future democratic reforms: income tax, direct election of senators, secret ballot; formed in 1892 by members of the Farmer's Alliance, this party was designed to appeal to workers in all parts of the country. Populists favored a larger role of government in American Society, a progressive income tax, and more direct methods of democracy

Progressivism

1890-1920 reform movement; formed organizations that pressured the government; led by educated experts; urban middle class, secular, focus on science and expertise, education; consistently ignore race question, racist
motives: status anxiety, do-gooding moral reformers, racism, and gender and reform
goals: initiative, referendum, recall, secret ballot, direct primary, women's suffrage, voter registration laws (disenfranchised poor and immigrants), expanded democracy for the educated, want to improve urban and farming workers and change the elite class for the better

Pragmatism

William James endorsed the theory of pragmatism at the turn-of-the-20th century. Spawned by Darwinism, it was the idea that modern society should test or challenge all ideas through scientific inquiry in order to derive the truth

Consumerism

Americans could now spend what they had beentold to save during the war (disposable income); increased purchasing of luxury items

Realism

reflected the materialism of an industrial society. For example, William Dean Howells wrote A Modern Instance, which dealt with the subject of divorce. He also wrote A Hazard of New Fortunes,which portrays the reformers, strikers, and Socialists in Gilded Age New York. (Mark Twain used frontier realism)

Naturalism

the literary style of naturalism uses realism to study the human condition as a product of the social environment and social conditions.Authors associated with this style are Stephen Crane, Jack London, Frank Norris, Theodore Dreiser

Liberalism

A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.

Conservatism

an ideology based on tradition and social stability that favored the maintenance of established institutions, organized religion, and obedience to authority and resisted change, especially abrupt change. advocates limits on government power to address economic and social problems, relying instead on economic markets and individual initiative to address problems like health care and education, while promoting government involvement in moral matters to, for instance, minimize or eliminate abortions or permit prayer in public schools

Congregationalism

form of Protestant church government in which the local congregation is independent and self-governing; in the colonies, set up by the Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony wherein each local church served as the center of its own community

New Imperialism

Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories

Imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially

International Darwinism

Darwin's concept of the survival of the fittest was applied not only to competition in the business world but also to competition among nations. nations with the greatest economic, military, political or technological powers (or the greatest of combinations) are the rightful leaders of the world while those without should be left to their own fates. the US had to demonstrate its strength by acquiring territories overseas, a sort of continuing of the manifest destiny.

Racism

Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences product an inherent superiority of a particular race.

Utilitarianism

The theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.

Militarism

European policy and culture (ideology) of keeping a strong standing army with much support in preparation for war, goes hand in hand with nationalism

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