Believed in freedom, immortality of the soul and the existence of god.
the only way human kind can know things is through the process of reason.
Pen Name Voltaire, Leader of Educational Awakening, Placed greater emphasis on human ability to reason.
Alfred North Whitehead
He Proposed "Process" to be the central aspect of realism.
did not see objective reality and subjective mind as separate.
Ignatius of Loyola
organized the society of Jesus (Jesuits)
Established schools for the cause of the Roman Catholic Church.
Seven Cardinal Principles of secondary education
Stated that students should receive an education in the following fields: Health,command of functional processes, worthy home membership, vocation,civic education, worthy use of leisure and ethical character.
Wrote "Social Contract" Goal of education was to return human beings to their natural state. created naturalism, education was a natural process not artificial. Believed that Children were inherently good.
Frederick the Great
(1712-1786) Education Awakening
Permitted an unusual amount of free speech. Allowed common people a degree of liberty.
(742-814) Dark Ages
Established schools and encouraged scholarly activity. Revitalized Education in the Dark Ages.
Established the first Kindergarten
Emphasized on social development. Said women are best suited to teach young children.
viewed a young childs mind as a blank slate. Education could be imprinted. Teachers need a non threatening learning environment.
A Thinking strategy that focuses on questions of "what ought to be" includes discernment, connection, tracking hypocrisy, and hope.
A thinking strategy that focuses on questions of "what seems to be". Included abstractions, imagination, generalization and logic.
School of Philosophy that considers ideas to be the only true reality. The spiritual world is everlasting and is not subject to change because it is perfect.
A school of philosophy that holds that reality, knowledge, and value exist independent of the human mind. Physical entities exist in their own right.
A psychological theory and educational philosophy that asserts that behaviors represent the essence of a person and that all behaviors can be explained as responses to stimuli. Teacher centered.
A learners acquisition of facts, concepts, and principles through mental activity.
Philosophy that questions the nature of reality. "Beyond the physical" "what is reality", search for order and wholeness.
An Educational philosophy that emphasizes that ideas should be tested by experimentation and that learning is rooted in questions developed by the learner. Student Centered
An Educational Philosophy that emphasizes hands on, activity-based teaching and learning during which students develop their own frames of thought.
(384-322) persons most important purpose in life was to serve and improve man kind. Scientific, practical and objective. Quality of society was determined by the quality of education in the society.
Johann Frederick Herbart
(1776-1841) Educational Awakening
Created the Herbartian Teaching Method
Believes one can predict learning outcomes by assessing 3 factors; cognitive behaviors of a student, affective entry characteristics, and quality of instruction. Author of Blooms Taxonomy. Attempted to identify and weigh the factors of learning.
Emphasis on Harmony
Correct thinking should help one achieve harmony with life. Education holds a high place, stresses building moral character.
Philosophy is deeply personal and aesthetic experience. living is philosophy. Schools are places that diverse humans can appear before others as they authentically see themselves.
Teacher centered philosophy. Holds there is a common core of information and skills that an educated person must have. Schools should be organized to transmit this core of essential material.
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
(1746-1827) Educational Awakening
Put Rousseaus theory to work.
Said teachers should treat students with love and Kindness.
Native North American Thought
Varied set of beliefs, positions and customs. Relationships of humans to all of nature. To understand is to live and to develop an even closer, more profound human to nature relationship.
Permeated by opposites. Emphasis on the search for wisdom. knowledge is to be used to improve both social and communal life and people should live according to their ideals.
Saw no difference between being free and being human. existential moment- the point towards the end of youth when individuals realize for the first time that they exist as independent agents.
Existential Philosopher who stresses the importance of the individuality of persons. He Criticized the way social systems such as modern educational institutions foster a spirit of capitalistic greed.
Johann Amos Comenius
Books were first to contain illustrations. Was essential to the growth of education.
Society should consist of 3 types of people, artisans, soldiers, and philosophers. wanted to develop each individuals abilities.
Accepted education be important to all people.
Published his 99 theses. Education was a way of salvation.
Roman Educator. Wrote the institutes of oratory
described current educational practices.
An educational philosophy that contends that humans are innately good. that they are born free but become enslaved by institutions. Student centered.
Focuses on outward behavior that suggested that students could be successfully trained and conditioned to learn just about anything a teacher desired.
A social theory and educational philosophy that limits truth and knowledge to what is observable and measurable.
Recognizes the significance of the natural world. Accepts the phenomenal world as absolute. Emphasis on intuitive, sensible, concrete events rather than universal ideas.
Philosophy that examines how and what we know. what is involved in the process of knowing.
A School of philosophy that focuses on the importance of the individual rather than on external standards.
A process of philosophy that stresses evolving and change rather than being. Belief in a open universe that is dynamic, evolving and in a state of becoming.
Philosophy that deals with the nature of values. questions like "what is good""what is values"
(1596-1650) Educational Awakening
Laid foundations of rationalism.
1. reason was supreme
2. the laws of nature were invariable.
3. truth could be verified empirically.
(1225-1274) Dark Ages
Changed the church's view on learning. lead to mid evil universities. formalized scholasticism. logical and philosophical studies of the church.
Explained that human beings are creatures who have to adapt to one another and to their environments.
Charles S. Pierce
Belief is a habit of action undertaken to overcome indecisiveness.
(1896-1980) Developed one of the first intelligence tests. Created theory of cognitive development. 4 stages of cognitive development.
1. 0-2 years. sensorimotor stage
2. 2-7 years. preoperational stage.
3. 7-11 years. concrete operations stage
4. 11-15 years. formal operations stage.
Norm Referenced Assessments
Used to demonstrate who is the best in some area. Individuals performance is compared with that of a norm group of similar individuals.