Sociology - Real World - Ch 8: Race / Ethnic Group Issues

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: Real World 3E

affirmative action

Programs or policies that seek to rectify the effects of past discrimination by increasing representation and ensuring equal opportunity for any previously disadvantaged group (page 237)

assimilation

A pattern of relations between ethnic or racial groups in which the minority group is absorbed into the mainstream or dominant group, making society more homogenous (page 239)

cultural assimilation

the process by which racial or ethnic groups are absorbed into the dominant group by adopting the dominant group's culture (page 242)

discrimination

Unequal treatment of individuals based on their membership in a social group; usually motivated by prejudice (page 228)

embodied identity

Those elements of identity that are generated through others' perceptions of our physical traits (page 231)

ethnicity

A socially defined category based on common language, religion, nationality, history, or another cultural factor (page 222)

genocide

The deliberate and systematic extermination of a racial, ethnic, national, or cultural group (page 238)

individual discrimination

Discrimination carried out by one person against another (page 228)

institutional discrimination

Discrimination carried out systematically by institutions (political, economic, educational, and others) that affect all members of a group who come into contact with it (page 228)

internal colonialism

The economic and political domination and subjugation of the minority group by the controlling group within a nation (page 239)

minority group

Members of a social group that is systematically denied the same access to power and resources available to society's dominant groups but who are not necessarily fewer in number than the dominant groups (page 226)

miscegenation

Romantic, sexual, or marital relationships between people of different races (page 232)

passing

Presenting yourself as a member of a different racial or ethnic group than the one you were born into (page 231)

pluralism

A cultural pattern of intergroup relations that encourages racial and ethnic variation within a society (page 242)

population transfer

The forcible removal of a group of people from the territory they have occupied (page 239)

prejudice

An idea about the characteristics of a group that is applied to all members of that group and is unlikely to change regardless of the evidence against it (page 228)

race

A socially defined category based on real or perceived biological differences between groups of people (page 222)

racial assimilation

The process by which racial minority groups are absorbed into the dominant group through intermarriage (page 241)

racism

A set of beliefs about the superiority of one racial or ethnic group; used to justify inequality and often rooted in the assumption that differences between groups are genetic (page 226)

segregation

The formal and legal separation of groups by race or ethnicity (page 239)

situational ethnicity

An ethnic identity that can be either displayed or concealed depending on its usefulness in a given situation (page 223)

symbolic ethnicity

An ethnic identity that is only relevant on specific occasions and does not significantly impact everyday life (page 223)

Institutional discrimination is more systematic and widespread

How is institutional discrimination different from individual discrimination?

racial bias

According to one study, in Pennsylvania, black defendants on trial for murder were 40 percent more likely to receive the death penalty than whites convicted of similar crimes. This indicates that the criminal justice system has a ___________.

poverty

What is the effect of a split labor market, in which workers belonging to one race are paid less than those of a different race?
The effects of racism are compounded by __________.

genocide

The deliberate and systematic extermination of a racial, ethnic, or national group is called

symbolic ethnicity

In Chicago, a city with more Polish people than anywhere else in the United States, Casimir Pulaski Day is always a very important holiday. Although not well remembered in the rest of the country, Pulaski was a Polish-born hero of the American Revolution and a cavalry general. What concept helps to explain why this holiday is so much more important to people who trace their ancestry to Poland?

More Asians are without health insurance than Whites

Given what you know about the average income and health insurance associated with the four racial groups of Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics, what information is surprising?

identity challenges

There are a number of derogatory terms in the United States for members of minority groups who have assimilated. "Oreo," "twinkie," and "coconut" are all rude terms for people who are one color on the outside, but "white on the inside," that is, people whose behavior doesn't match their skin color. What term embodies these insults?

forgotten genocide

The massacre of 1.5 million Armenians by the Turkish government after World War I is known as the ______________

a negative view of a group's cultural characteristics

Many immigrants to the United States have gotten in trouble for keeping livestock, especially chickens, goats, and pigs, in urban areas. Their neighbors feel that it's okay to own a 150-pound mastiff, but "unsanitary" to have a 50-pound goat that gives milk. In this case, what is driving racism?

Antonio Gramsci

The work of the Italian Marxist _________ is significant because it seriously considers the importance of the "cultural life-worlds of the oppressed." In what way does this resemble the symbolic interactionist perspective on race? Both argue that race must be explained in the terms it is experienced, not as overarching general theories.

discrimination

An action or behavior that results in the unequal treatment of an individual because of his membership in a racial or ethnic group is called:

race can have an effect on health

A study prepared by the United Church of Christ's Commission on Racial Justice argued that African American and Hispanic communities are much more likely to be located near toxic waste dumps than white communities. What does this tell you about race in America?

the Irish were once considered a separate race

In the 1900s, there was a strong prejudice against Irish immigrants and their descendants. Editorial cartoons often depicted the Irish as physically distinct and as looking like apes. What does this tell you about the history of race in the United States?

there is no official language

Switzerland is home to Protestants and Catholics with French, German, and Italian ethnic backgrounds. What is the official language of Switzerland?

powerful cultural stereotypes discourage them

Even though antimiscegenation laws have been struck down, interracial relationships are still relatively uncommon. Why?

to increase diversity

What is the goal of affirmative action?

assimilation

What is it called when a minority group is absorbed into the dominant group?

jobs are not distributed regardless of racial diversity or ethnic identity

n 2009 there were only five African Americans who were CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, or 1 percent of the total number of Fortune 500 CEOs. Given that African Americans make up more than 11 percent of the U.S. population, what does this tell you?

innate or biologically based

In visual representations, racial and ethnic minorities are often portrayed as animalistic or subhuman, many times as monkeys or chimpanzees. Why would racist imagery so often use animals?
Animal imagery supports the assumption that differences between groups are __________________.

social institutions

Despite demographic shifts, how can you tell that whites are still the dominant group in California? They remain dominant in terms of power, resources, and representation in ______________.

absolute deprivation

An objective measure of poverty, defined by the inability to meet minimal standards for food, shelter, clothing, or health care.

apartheid

The system of segregation of racial and ethnic groups that was legal in South Africa between 1948 and 1991.

the struggle for power and control

According to conflict theory, what is the real source of racism?

in an online interaction, there is no way to see what people look like

Why do many people hope that the Internet will have a democratic influence on society?

race is a social construct

The Brazilian census has traditionally only had four racial categories: preto, branco, amarelo, and pardo. However, in everyday life, Brazilians have many other racial categories, including moreno, mulato, neguinho, and pretinho. Most of these terms don't have an equivalent in the United States. What does this tell you?

disparities in access to health care

Why are there differences in life expectancies for people of different races?

racist beliefs that become part of economic life

Rather than seeing racism as a product of class differences, recent theorists like Tomas Almaguer argue that:

the social construction of race

In the early 1900s, native-born Americans, usually Protestants, did not consider Irish, Italian, or Jewish immigrants to be white. What does this illustrate?

dominant

Despite demographic shifts, how can you tell that whites are still the dominant group in California?
Answer - They remain _______ in terms of power, resources, and representation in social institutions.

biologically based

The Bell Curve by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray generated an enormous amount of controversy when it first came out, largely because it suggested that racial differences in IQ scores were due to genetically driven differences in intelligence and argued that "both genes and the environment have something to do with racial differences." For those who disagreed, this seemed like a very familiar argument, because racist beliefs are often rooted in the assumption that differences between groups are _______

there is no official language

Switzerland is home to Protestants and Catholics with French, German, and Italian ethnic backgrounds. What is the official language of Switzerland?

assimilation

What is it called when a minority group is absorbed into the dominant group?

believing that Asians are better at math

What is an example of a prejudice?

other Hispanics tenants were able to find places to rent

If a landlord was found guilty of discriminatory practices for refusing to rent to Hispanic tenants, what could be seen as evidence that it was a case of individual discrimination?

It doesn't assume that the economy determines every aspect of a society and its culture.

Cornel West argues that the work of Antonio Gramsci is significant because Gramsci was the first European Marxist to seriously consider the "cultural life-worlds of the oppressed" in ways that treated culture as a serious, independent force in people's lives. How is Gramsci's work similar to that of Tomas Almaguer or Howard Winant and Michael Omi?

race can have an effect on health

A study prepared by the United Church of Christ's Commission on Racial Justice argued that African American and Hispanic communities are much more likely to be located near toxic waste dumps than white communities. What does this tell you about race in America?

the assimilation of European ethnic groups into larger society

What racial issue does functionalism help to explain?

passing happens entirely through interaction

Anatole Broyard, a literary critic and writer for the New York Times, lived a double life. He had a mixed racial heritage, and while African American friends knew him as African American, white friends and professional acquaintances thought that he was white. After his death, Broyard's daughter tried to write his life story and, as part of the process, organized a family reunion. This was made more difficult by the fact that Broyard's extended family included many who thought of themselves as white, others as black. What does this demonstrate about passing?

the struggle for power and control

According to conflict theory, what is the real source of racism?

a structural functionalist

The "ethnic miracle" is a term used to describe the process by which European immigrants and their descendants stopped being treated as members of minority groups, and became assimilated into the dominant group. What kind of sociologist believes that this happened because it made society run much more efficiently?

symbolic ethnicity

Displays of ethnic identity that only occur on special occasions are called:

a social category based on real or perceived biological differences

How do sociologists define race?

Jobs are not distributed regardless of race and ethnicity

In 2009 there were only five African Americans who were CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, or 1 percent of the total number of Fortune 500 CEOs. Given that African Americans make up more than 11 percent of the U.S. population, what does this tell you?

it does not assume that an economy determines every aspect of society and culture

Cornel West argues that the work of Antonio Gramsci is significant because Gramsci was the first European Marxist to seriously consider the "cultural life-worlds of the oppressed" in ways that treated culture as a serious, independent force in people's lives. How is Gramsci's work similar to that of Tomas Almaguer or Howard Winant and Michael Omi?

How did the G.I. Bill of Rights, which provided funds for home loans, affect African Americans?

Though it was written to help all veterans regardless of race, African Americans were typically excluded from home ownership.

we do a cost - benefit analysis

How do we decide when to display situational ethnicity?

Whites are now less than half the population of California

How do the demographics of California challenge the way that the term "minority" has been used in the past?

powerful cultural groups discourage them

Even though antimiscegenation laws have been struck down, interracial relationships are still relatively uncommon. Why?

They feel that the men they encounter are less likely to offer the advantages that make marriage worth the risk

Why are poor women less likely to marry than wealthy women?

a social category based on real or perceived biological differences

How do sociologists define race?

they are denied access to power and resources

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, since 2004 Texas has had a minority population of at least 11.3 million, comprising 50.2 percent of its total population of 22.5 million. The primary minority group is Mexican Americans. However, despite this numerical prominence, Texas has never had a Mexican American governor, and the percentage of Mexican Americans in its state House has never been higher than 26. Why would a sociologist still call Mexican Americans a minority group?

coming from a non-English speaking background

What factor makes someone most likely to drop out of high school?

pluralism

Societies that encourage racial and ethnic diversity have embraced the value of

race can have an effect on health

A study prepared by the United Church of Christ's Commission on Racial Justice argued that African American and Hispanic communities are much more likely to be located near toxic waste dumps than white communities. What does this tell you about race in America?

Both argue that race must be explained in the terms it is experienced, not as overarching general theories.

The work of the Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci is significant because it seriously considers the importance of the "cultural life-worlds of the oppressed." In what way does this resemble the symbolic interactionist perspective on race?

Potential husbands of poor women will not offer the financial stability, respectability and trust that make marriage beneficial.

In 2003 a piece of legislation considered by the U.S. Congress proposed to spend almost two billion dollars to encourage marriage, and there was some consideration of giving people on welfare cash bonuses if they got married. Why does your textbook suggest this approach might not work?

an identity challenge

What do sociologists call it when an African American individual is told he is not really "black enough"?

disparities in access to health care

Why are there differences in life expectancies for people of different races?

Race is not a side effect of class; rather it permeates every aspect of daily life

Why are there differences in life expectancies for people of different races?

segregation

After the Civil War, most southern states passed laws that barred African Americans and whites from sharing most kinds of public facilities. This is an example of _______

identity challenge

What do sociologists call it when an African American individual is told he is not really "black enough"?

we do a cost - benefit analysis

How do we decide when to display situational ethnicity?

cultural assimilation

When members of a minority group learn the cultural practices of the dominant group, they have undergone

institutional discrimination

In 1993 six African American Secret Service agents filed a complaint with the Justice Department against Denny's for refusal of service because the restaurant took much longer to serve them than other customers. After they filed the complaint, thousands of other African Americans came forward with similar allegations. What are these allegations evidence of?

institutional discrimination

The "Jim Crow" laws in the American South, which mandated separate facilities for whites and blacks, were an example of:

all answers are true

In the United States, which of the following groups usually do not have a choice about displaying their race or ethnicity?

They create a sense of identity and lead to feelings of solidarity.

What are the positive consequences of racial and ethnic categories?

population transfer

In the early nineteenth century, Native Americans, who had survived clashes with the U.S. army, were forcibly removed to reservations. This is an example of:

Asian Americans

Which major U.S. racial group has the lowest high school drop-out rate?

2.9 percent

In 2010, the Census Bureau allowed Americans to check more than one box when identifying their race. What percentage of the population took advantage of this and identified as multiracial?

majority / minority state

When whites are less than half the population of any given state, it is called a:

more Asians are without health insurance than Whites

Given what you know about the average income associated with the four racial groups and their health care, what information is surprising?

the criminal justice system has a racial bias

According to one study, in Pennsylvania, black defendants on trial for murder were 40 percent more likely to receive the death penalty than whites convicted of similar crimes. This indicates that:

racist beliefs can become a part of economic life

Rather than seeing racism as a product of class differences, recent theorists like Tomas Almaguer argue that:

the assimilation of European ethnic groups into larger society

What racial issues does functionalism explain?

Race is not a side effect of class; rather it permeates every aspect of daily life.

According to sociologists like Howard Winant and Michael Omi, what is the relationship between race and class?

prejudice is an attitude/ discrimination is an action

How is prejudice different from discrimination?

The Internet is not a place where negative racial distinctions disappear; they simply appear in different ways.

How have racial problems manifested themselves on the internet?

pluralism

Societies that encourage racial and ethnic diversity have embraced the value of

a structural functionalist

The "ethnic miracle" is a term used to describe the process by which European immigrants and their descendants stopped being treated as members of minority groups, and became assimilated into the dominant group. What kind of sociologist believes that this happened because it made society run much more efficiently?

assimilation

What is it called when a minority group is absorbed into the dominant group?

racism

A set of beliefs about the superiority of one racial or ethnic group compared to another is:

cultural assimilation

A set of beliefs about the superiority of one racial or ethnic group compared to another is:

prejudice

The belief that all Irish are drunks is an example of:

racism

A set of beliefs about the superiority of one racial or ethnic group compared to another is:

Switzerland

Which of the following countries is an example of a pluralistic culture in which people of French, Italian, and German heritage live peacefully together in political and economic unity?

racist beliefs can be a part of economic life

Rather than seeing racism as a product of class differences, recent theorists like Tomas Almaguer argue that:

segregatIon

After the Civil War, most southern states passed laws that barred African Americans and whites from sharing most kinds of public facilities. This is an example of:

They feel that the men they encounter are less likely to offer the advantages that make marriage worth the risk

Why are poor women less likely to marry?

genocide

The deliberate and systematic extermination of a racial, ethnic, or national group is called:

NOT an example

Believing that African Americans are better dancers than white people is ________ of discrimination.

Cablinasian

How does Tiger Woods describe his own racial identity?

there was a discussion at the highest levels of government to kill as many people as possible

In 1994 mass killings occurred in Rwanda, as members of the Hutu majority killed more than a million members of the Tutsi minority, many of them murdered with machetes. Although many Hutus later claimed that they were just trying to defend themselves, which of the following indicates that it was really a genocide?

identity challenges

There are a number of derogatory terms in the United States for members of minority groups who have assimilated. "Oreo," "twinkie," and "coconut" are all rude terms for people who are one color on the outside, but "white on the inside," that is, people whose behavior doesn't match their skin color. What term embodies these insults?

The link between race and class is useful and important, but it doesn't provide a satisfactory explanation for all forms of racism.

Classical Marxist analysis often argued that everything is ultimately determined by the economy, even though sometimes it is through many complicated steps. Can economic factors explain racism?

a group that suffers unequal treatment

How do sociologists define a minority group?

Biologically there is not such thing as a pure race

What has modern science determined about racial categories?

racism

A set of beliefs about the superiority of one racial or ethnic group compared to another is

a group with a shared ancestry or shared cultural heritage

How do sociologists define ethnicity?

racial assimilation

What is it called when members of a racial minority group intermarry and have children with members of the dominant group until the races are completely mixed?

population transfer

In the early nineteenth century, Native Americans, who had survived clashes with the U.S. army, were forcibly removed to reservations. This is an example of

assimilation

What is it called when a minority group is absorbed into the dominant group?

passing

In the novel The Human Stain by Philip Roth, a professor at a college in the Northeast is forced into early retirement after he is accused of racism. The charge turns out to be ironic when the reader learns that the professor has a secret: he was born to African American parents and has been covering up his heritage and living as a white man for his whole adult life. What is this an example of?

situational ethnicity

A young person from Southern California has four German grandparents. She lived in Los Angeles all her life before accepting a job in Milwaukee. She's never really thought about her German heritage, but in Milwaukee she discovers many other people with similar ancestries and starts using her ethnicity as a way to develop social and professional relationships. What is this an example of?

racism

A set of beliefs about the superiority of one racial or ethnic group compared to another is

economic factors

According to William Julius Wilson, racism has created a black underclass, but this underclass is perpetuated by:

disparities in access to health care

Why are there differences in life expectancies for people of different races?

a salad bowl

What metaphor best describes cultures that have embraced multiculturalism and pluralism?

institutional discrimination

The "Jim Crow" laws in the American South, which mandated separate facilities for whites and blacks, were an example of:

internal colonialism

The exploitation of a minority group within the dominant group's political borders is called:

cultural assimilation

When members of a minority group learn the cultural practices of the dominant group, they have undergone:

situational ethnicity

A young person from Southern California has four German grandparents. She lived in Los Angeles all her life before accepting a job in Milwaukee. She's never really thought about her German heritage, but in Milwaukee she discovers many other people with similar ancestries and starts using her ethnicity as a way to develop social and professional relationships. What is this an example of?

institutional discrimination

In 1993 six African American Secret Service agents filed a complaint with the Justice Department against Denny's for refusal of service because the restaurant took much longer to serve them than other customers. After they filed the complaint, thousands of other African Americans came forward with similar allegations. What are these allegations evidence of?

Animal imagery supports the assumption that differences between groups are innate, or biologically based.

In visual representations, racial and ethnic minorities are often portrayed as animalistic or subhuman, many times as monkeys or chimpanzees. Why would racist imagery so often use animals?

Such beliefs justify social arrangements between dominant and minority groups that benefit those who accept them.

Plantation owners in America often argued that the Africans they imported were better off as slaves, because they didn't have the mental capacity to run their own lives. Today this seems both racist and crazy, as clearly slaves had been fine when they lived in Africa. How could such racist beliefs flourish?

Even master statuses like race and gender have to be constructed in the negotiation between what we project and what others recognize.

The sociologist Amy L. Best, in "Doing Race in the Context of Feminist Interviewing: Constructing Whiteness Through Talk," analyzed how two African American teenagers had to create racial identities during their interview with her. What does this analysis suggest about race?

pluralism

Societies that encourage racial and ethnic diversity have embraced the value of:

the struggle for power and control

According to conflict theory, what is the real source of racism?

a negative view of a group's cultural characteristics

Many immigrants to the United States have gotten in trouble for keeping livestock, especially chickens, goats, and pigs, in urban areas. Their neighbors feel that it's okay to own a 150-pound mastiff, but "unsanitary" to have a 50-pound goat that gives milk. In this case, what is driving racism?

situational ethnicity

A young person from Southern California has four German grandparents. She lived in Los Angeles all her life before accepting a job in Milwaukee. She's never really thought about her German heritage, but in Milwaukee she discovers many other people with similar ancestries and starts using her ethnicity as a way to develop social and professional relationships. What is this an example of?

They create a sense of identity and lead to feelings of solidarity.

What are the positive consequences of racial and ethnic categories?

be able to include racially relevant content and language in interactions

What does an individual need to be able to do in order to sound authentically African American when interacting with others online?

institutional discrimination

In 1993 six African American Secret Service agents filed a complaint with the Justice Department against Denny's for refusal of service because the restaurant took much longer to serve them than other customers. After they filed the complaint, thousands of other African Americans came forward with similar allegations. What are these allegations evidence of?

symbolic ethnicity

When someone of Irish ancestry who doesn't typically identify as Irish in everyday life puts on a green hat, drinks green beer, and wears a "Kiss me, I'm Irish" t-shirt on St. Patrick's Day, it is an example of:

a structural functionalist

The "ethnic miracle" is a term used to describe the process by which European immigrants and their descendants stopped being treated as members of minority groups, and became assimilated into the dominant group. What kind of sociologist believes that this happened because it made society run much more efficiently?

Whites are now less than half of the population of California.

How do the demographics of California challenge the way that the term "minority" has been used in the past?

Such beliefs justify social arrangements between dominant and minority groups that benefit those who accept them.

Plantation owners in America often argued that the Africans they imported were better off as slaves, because they didn't have the mental capacity to run their own lives. Today this seems both racist and crazy, as clearly slaves had been fine when they lived in Africa. How could such racist beliefs flourish?

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