Dev. Psychology Ch. 4

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The Emergence of Thought and Language

schemes

Children make sense of the world through ______

schemes

_____ are mental categories of related events, objects, and knowledge

schemes

Children adapt by refining their _____ and adding new ones

assimilation

______ is fitting new experiences into existing schemes

assimilation

_____ is required to benefit from experience

accommodation

_______ is modifying schemes as a result of new experiences

accommodation

_______ allows for dealing with completely new data or experiences

Piaget

_______ was responsible for these terms: schemes, assimilation, accommodation, equilibration, equilibrium & disequilibrium

equilibrium

balance between assimilation and accommodation is known as _______

disequilibrium

experience of conflict between new information and existing concepts creates a state of _________

equilibration

_________ is a process by which children reorganize their schemes to return to a state of equilibrium when disequilibrium occurs

equilibration, 4

____________ occurs three times during development, resulting in ____ qualitatively different stages of cognitive development.

rewards

The difference between classical and operant conditioning is _________

sensorimotor

The age for _________ period is infancy.

preoperational

The ages for _______ period is preschool and early elementary years.

concrete operational

The ages for the _____ ______ period is middle and late elementary school years

formal operational

The ages for the ______ ____ period is adolescence and adulthood

sensorimotor

The following are all characteristics of _____ thinking:
•Deliberate, means-ends behavior
•Object permanence
•Using symbols

object permanence

________ _______ is knowing an object still exists even if it's not in view.

18

object permanence is not fully understood until ___ months

preoperational

The following are all characteristics of _______ thinking
•Egocentrism
•Animism
•Centration
•Conservation
•Appearance is reality

egocentrism

difficulty seeing the world form other's perspectives is known as ______

animism

__________ is crediting inanimate objects with life and life-llike properties

centration

_________ is concentrating on only one facet of a problem to the neglect of other facets

conservation

__________ is knowing that volume, mass, number, length, area, or liquid quantity are the same despite superficial appearance changes

centration

_______ interferes with conservation

appearance

the idea that ______ is reality, is assuming that an object is really what it appears to be! (e.g., thinking that Shrek is a real ogre)

piaget

The following are all criticisms of _______'s Theory:
•Underestimates infant's and young children's cognitive ability
-Overestimates adolescents' cognitive ability
•Vague about mechanisms and processes of change

one to one

The _____-__-____ principle is a counting principle that states that there must be one and only one number name for each object counted

stable order

The _____-_____ principle is a counting principle that states that number names must always be counted in the same order

cardinality

The ______ principle is a counting principle that the last number name denotes the number of objects being counted

noticeable

*One way to improve preschool children's attention is to make irrelevant stimuli less ______

memories

*Preschoolers may be particularly suggestible because they are less skilled at monitoring the sources of their ______

cardinality

*When a child who is counting a set ob objects repeats the last number, usually with emphasis, this indicates the child's understanding of the _______ principle of counting

Vygotsky

The terms below are all included in _____'s Theory:
•Intersubjectivity
•Guided participation
•Apprenticeship
•Zone of Proximal Development
•Scaffolding

Vygotsky

_____ was a russian psychologist who died young at the age of 37

Vygotsky

______ did not fully develop his theory beyond the period of childhood

intersubjectivity

_________ refers to all participants having a mutual, shared understanding of an activity (e.g., game rules)

guided participation

with the idea of ________ __________, cognition develops via structured activities with more skilled others

apprenticeship

__________ is the process during which a more skilled master teaches a skill or task to a less skilled child

zone of proximal development

The difference between what children can do with assistance and what they can do alone defines their _____ __ _________ _______

scaffolding

_____________ is a style in which teachers gauge the amount of assistance they offer to match the learner's needs

private speech

______ ______ is a child's comments that are not intended for others but are designed instead to help regulate the child's own behavior

private speech

Vigotsky viewed _____ ______ as an intermediate step toward self-regulation of cognitive skills

private speech

According to Vygotsky, ________ _____ is an intermediate step between speech from others and inner speech.

zone of proximal development

The ____ ___ ______ _____ is the difference between the level of performance that youngsters can achieve with assistance and the level they can achieve alone.

phonemes

______ are unique sounds used to create words; the basic building blocks of language

joint attention

______ _______ is defined as parents labeling objects, plus children relying on adults' behavior to interpret the label's meaning

fast mapping

_____ ______ is children's ability to connect new words to referents so rapidly that they cannot be considering all possible meanings for the new word

fast mapping

The importance of ______ ______ is that children actually know to which object a new word refers instead of thinking about all possible referents

rapid learning

Many factors contribute to ______ _______ such as: joint attention, constraints on word names, sentence cues, cognitive factors, developmental change in word learning and naming errors.

constraints, parts, subcategory

children use various rules to learn new words by placing ______ on word names. Here are a few rules used:
-An unfamiliar word refers to the object not already having a name
-Names refer to the whole object instead of its _____
-A new name (T-rex) for an already named object (dinosaur) denotes the object's _____ name

sentence cues

children interpret unfamiliar words in a sentence using different ______ ______.
-Rely on words they already know and the sentence's structure to infer a new word's meaning or its function in a sentence
-Rely on the sentence's context

social, attentional

Developmental Change in Word Learning:
-Before 18 months: learn words relatively slowly (one word/day)
-By 24 months: learn many new words daily
•Greater use of language and _____ cues
•Reduced use of ______ cues

underextension

___________ is when children define words too narrowly.

overextension

_________ is when children define a word too broadly

underextension

Using car to refer only to the family car and ball to a favorite toy ball are examples of ________.

overextension

Children may use car to also refer to buses and trucks or use doggie to refer to all four-legged animals. These are examples of _________

overextension, related

The ______ error occurs more frequently when children are producing words than when they are comprehending words because children follow a rule: "If you can't remember the name for an object, say the name of a _____ object". For example, when shown a picture of a goat, the child may say doggie, but when asked where the goat is, they may able to correctly point to the goat.

overextension

Dr. Knox gave example of his grandson referring to all blue cars as grandpas car and all black SUV's as grandmas car. This is an example of _____

naming errors

______ _______ result from underextension and overextension.

initially

Learning 2 languages at once ______ slows down vocabulary learning

smaller, total, arbitrary symbolic, inappropriate

•Bilingual compared to monolingual children
-Have somewhat _____ vocabularies for each language
-Have a greater ____ vocabulary
-Better understand words' ______ _______ nature (understanding the slang and symbols behind everything in that particular language)
-Are more skilled at switching across tasks
-Are better able to inhibit _____ responses

telegraphic speech

children reflect _____ _______ - using words directly relevant to meaning and no more

telegraphic speech

"I no sleep" is an example of a child using _____ ______

grammatical morphemes

At 18 months:
- Children exclude _______ ________, which are words or endings that make a sentence grammatical
•By preschool, they show growing knowledge of grammatical rules instead of simple memory

overregularization

children reflect ___________ errors: applying rules to words that are exceptions to the rule

overregularization

"I goed home" is an example of a child using _______

phonemes

*______ are fundamental sounds used to create words.

intonation

*older infants' babbling often includes _______, a pattern of rising and falling pitch that distinguished state-metns from questions

overextension

*In _______, a young child's meaning of a word is broader than an adult's meaning

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