Children make sense of the world through ______
_____ are mental categories of related events, objects, and knowledge
Children adapt by refining their _____ and adding new ones
______ is fitting new experiences into existing schemes
_____ is required to benefit from experience
_______ is modifying schemes as a result of new experiences
_______ allows for dealing with completely new data or experiences
_______ was responsible for these terms: schemes, assimilation, accommodation, equilibration, equilibrium & disequilibrium
balance between assimilation and accommodation is known as _______
experience of conflict between new information and existing concepts creates a state of _________
_________ is a process by which children reorganize their schemes to return to a state of equilibrium when disequilibrium occurs
____________ occurs three times during development, resulting in ____ qualitatively different stages of cognitive development.
The difference between classical and operant conditioning is _________
The age for _________ period is infancy.
The ages for _______ period is preschool and early elementary years.
The ages for the _____ ______ period is middle and late elementary school years
The ages for the ______ ____ period is adolescence and adulthood
The following are all characteristics of _____ thinking:
•Deliberate, means-ends behavior
________ _______ is knowing an object still exists even if it's not in view.
object permanence is not fully understood until ___ months
The following are all characteristics of _______ thinking
•Appearance is reality
difficulty seeing the world form other's perspectives is known as ______
__________ is crediting inanimate objects with life and life-llike properties
_________ is concentrating on only one facet of a problem to the neglect of other facets
__________ is knowing that volume, mass, number, length, area, or liquid quantity are the same despite superficial appearance changes
_______ interferes with conservation
the idea that ______ is reality, is assuming that an object is really what it appears to be! (e.g., thinking that Shrek is a real ogre)
The following are all criticisms of _______'s Theory:
•Underestimates infant's and young children's cognitive ability
-Overestimates adolescents' cognitive ability
•Vague about mechanisms and processes of change
one to one
The _____-__-____ principle is a counting principle that states that there must be one and only one number name for each object counted
The _____-_____ principle is a counting principle that states that number names must always be counted in the same order
The ______ principle is a counting principle that the last number name denotes the number of objects being counted
*One way to improve preschool children's attention is to make irrelevant stimuli less ______
*Preschoolers may be particularly suggestible because they are less skilled at monitoring the sources of their ______
*When a child who is counting a set ob objects repeats the last number, usually with emphasis, this indicates the child's understanding of the _______ principle of counting
The terms below are all included in _____'s Theory:
•Zone of Proximal Development
_____ was a russian psychologist who died young at the age of 37
______ did not fully develop his theory beyond the period of childhood
_________ refers to all participants having a mutual, shared understanding of an activity (e.g., game rules)
with the idea of ________ __________, cognition develops via structured activities with more skilled others
__________ is the process during which a more skilled master teaches a skill or task to a less skilled child
zone of proximal development
The difference between what children can do with assistance and what they can do alone defines their _____ __ _________ _______
_____________ is a style in which teachers gauge the amount of assistance they offer to match the learner's needs
______ ______ is a child's comments that are not intended for others but are designed instead to help regulate the child's own behavior
Vigotsky viewed _____ ______ as an intermediate step toward self-regulation of cognitive skills
According to Vygotsky, ________ _____ is an intermediate step between speech from others and inner speech.
zone of proximal development
The ____ ___ ______ _____ is the difference between the level of performance that youngsters can achieve with assistance and the level they can achieve alone.
______ are unique sounds used to create words; the basic building blocks of language
______ _______ is defined as parents labeling objects, plus children relying on adults' behavior to interpret the label's meaning
_____ ______ is children's ability to connect new words to referents so rapidly that they cannot be considering all possible meanings for the new word
The importance of ______ ______ is that children actually know to which object a new word refers instead of thinking about all possible referents
Many factors contribute to ______ _______ such as: joint attention, constraints on word names, sentence cues, cognitive factors, developmental change in word learning and naming errors.
constraints, parts, subcategory
children use various rules to learn new words by placing ______ on word names. Here are a few rules used:
-An unfamiliar word refers to the object not already having a name
-Names refer to the whole object instead of its _____
-A new name (T-rex) for an already named object (dinosaur) denotes the object's _____ name
children interpret unfamiliar words in a sentence using different ______ ______.
-Rely on words they already know and the sentence's structure to infer a new word's meaning or its function in a sentence
-Rely on the sentence's context
Developmental Change in Word Learning:
-Before 18 months: learn words relatively slowly (one word/day)
-By 24 months: learn many new words daily
•Greater use of language and _____ cues
•Reduced use of ______ cues
___________ is when children define words too narrowly.
_________ is when children define a word too broadly
Using car to refer only to the family car and ball to a favorite toy ball are examples of ________.
Children may use car to also refer to buses and trucks or use doggie to refer to all four-legged animals. These are examples of _________
The ______ error occurs more frequently when children are producing words than when they are comprehending words because children follow a rule: "If you can't remember the name for an object, say the name of a _____ object". For example, when shown a picture of a goat, the child may say doggie, but when asked where the goat is, they may able to correctly point to the goat.
Dr. Knox gave example of his grandson referring to all blue cars as grandpas car and all black SUV's as grandmas car. This is an example of _____
______ _______ result from underextension and overextension.
Learning 2 languages at once ______ slows down vocabulary learning
smaller, total, arbitrary symbolic, inappropriate
•Bilingual compared to monolingual children
-Have somewhat _____ vocabularies for each language
-Have a greater ____ vocabulary
-Better understand words' ______ _______ nature (understanding the slang and symbols behind everything in that particular language)
-Are more skilled at switching across tasks
-Are better able to inhibit _____ responses
children reflect _____ _______ - using words directly relevant to meaning and no more
"I no sleep" is an example of a child using _____ ______
At 18 months:
- Children exclude _______ ________, which are words or endings that make a sentence grammatical
•By preschool, they show growing knowledge of grammatical rules instead of simple memory
children reflect ___________ errors: applying rules to words that are exceptions to the rule
"I goed home" is an example of a child using _______
*______ are fundamental sounds used to create words.
*older infants' babbling often includes _______, a pattern of rising and falling pitch that distinguished state-metns from questions
*In _______, a young child's meaning of a word is broader than an adult's meaning