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study guide vocab

nature vs. nuture debate

the controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experiences.

socialization

the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society

Kingsley Davis

1930s case of Isabelle;social isolation

theories of self

psychoanalytic-->sigmund freud
looking glass selg-->charles cooley
dramaturgy-->erving goffman
george herbert mead

psychoanalytic theory

A theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.

self

individual's conscious, reflexive experience of personal identity separate and distinct from other individuals

id

(psychoanalysis) primitive instincts and energies underlying all psychic activity

ego

realistic aspect of mind that balances forces of id and superego.

superego

two components(the conscience and the ego-ideal) and represents internalized demands of society

according to freud, three interrelated parts that make up the mind

ego,id, superego

psychosexual stages of development

According to Freudian theory, there are five stages of psychosexual development, each characterized by a dominant mode of achieving sexual pleasure: the oral stage, the anal stage, the phallic stage, the latency stage, and the genital stage.

looking glass self

Charles cooley:an image of yourself based on what you believe others think of you

parts of looking glass self

1)we imagine what we look like to others
2)we imagine other people's judgment of us
3)we experience some type of feeling about us becaue opur perceptions of other people's judgment.

preparatory stage

The first stage in Mead's theory of the development of self wherein children mimic or imitate others.

play stage

Mead's second stage in the development of role taking; children act in ways they imagine other people would

particular/significant other

The perspectives and expectations of a particular role that a child learns and internalizes.

game stage

Mead's third stage in the development of role taking; children anticipate the actions of others based on social rules

generalized other

Mead's term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves

dual nature of the self

the belief that we experience the self as both subject and object, the "I" and the "me"

Thomas theorem

William I. and Dorothy S. Thomas' classic formulation of the definition of the situation: "If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences."

defintion of the situation

an agreement with others about "what is going on" in a given circumstances. This consensus allows us to coordinate our actions with those of others and realize goals.

expression of behavior

small actions such as the eye roll or head nod that serve as a interactional tool to help project our defintion of the situation to others.

expressions given

expressions that are intentional and usually verbal, such as utterances.

expressions given off

observable expressions that can be either intended or unintended and are usually nonverbal

impression management

the process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them

dramaturgy

An approach, pioneered by Erving Goffman, in which social life is analyzed in terms of drama or the stage; also called dramaturgical analysis.

front

in dramaturgical perspective, the setting or scene of performances that helps establish definition of situation

personal front

expressive equpiment we consciously or unconsciously use as we present ourselves to others, including appearance and manner, to help establish definition of situation

region

in dramaturgical perspective, context or setting in which performance takes place

backstage

in the dramaturgical perspective, places in which we rehearse and prepare for our performance

frontstage

in the dramaturgical perspective, region in which we deliver our public performances

social construction

the process by which a concept or practice is created and maintained by participants who collectively agree that it exists

cooling the mark

behaviors that help others to save face or avoid embarrassment, often referred to as civlity or tact

autoethnography

ethnographic description that focuses on the feelings and reactions of the ethnographer

agents of socialization

social groups, institutions, and individuals

4 most predomiant agents of socialization

family,schools,peers,mass media

resocialization

The process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life

total institutions

places in which people are separated from the rest of society and controlled by officials in charge

status

a postion in a social hierarchy that carries a particular set of expectations

ascribed status

social position a person receives at birth or involuntarily later in life

embodied status

a status generated by physical characteristics

achieved status

a social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort

master status

a status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position in society

stereotyping

Judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which that person belongs

role

a set of behaviors expected of someone becaus of status

role conflict

conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses

role strain

conflicts that someone feels within a role

role exit

The process of leaving a role that we will no longer occupy.

role-taking emotions

Emotions like sympathy, embarrassment, or shame that require that we assume the perspective of another person or many other people and respond from that person or group's point of view.

feeling rules

the cultural norms used to create and react to emotional expressions

emotion work (emotional labor)

process of evoking, supressing, or otherwise managing feelings to create a publicly observable display of emotion

copresence

face-to-face interaction or being in the presence of others

saturated self

a postmodern idea that the self is now developed by multiple influences chosen from a wide range of media sources (page 118)

agency

ability of the individual to act freely and independently

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